This timeline was developed collaboratively by our community who assigned each WHS to a historical/geological "period".

All sites are shown in chronological order.


Barberton Makhonjwa Mountains: the best-preserved, thick and diverse succession of volcanic and sedimentary rocks dating back 3.6 to 3.25 billion years to the early part of the Archean Eon (AB ev)


Vredefort Dome: The crater's age is estimated to be 2.023 billion years (~ 4 million years), which places it in the Paleoproterozoic era. (Wiki)
Air and Téneré: La zone du socle précambrien de l'Aïr est composée de dépôts de roches sédimentaires plissées et métamorphisées (gneiss, schistes) et de roches volcaniques datant du Protérozoïque inférieur. (wiki fr)
Mistaken Point: the middle Ediacaran, 580 to 560 million years ago


Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks
Joggins Fossil Cliffs: dating to the Pennsylvanian "Coal Age" during the Late Carboniferous Period - the Carboniferous is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period 358.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, 298.9 million years ago (wiki)
Miguasha National Park: The fossils date back to the Devonian, "a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60.3 million years from the end of the Silurian, 419.2 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, 358.9 Mya" (wiki)
Gros Morne National Park: "Palaeozoic serpentinized ultra-basic rocks, gabbros, volcanic and Lower Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks" (AB ev)
Chengjiang Fossil Site: Maotianshan Shales, dated to between 525 and 520 million years ago during the Cambrian explosion (wiki)
Lena Pillars: The pillars are 150-300m (490-985ft) high, and were formed in some of the Cambrian Period sea-basins. (Wiki)
Golden Mountains of Altai: Geologists believe that the mountains were formed in the Caledonian period, but had a secondary rise in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic era. (Wiki)
Tassili n'Ajjer: grès fluviatiles du Paléozoïque (env. 450 millions d'années) en cours d'ensablement par les dunes du grand erg oriental et granite érodé en 'boules' au premier plan (wiki)
Uluru: The layers of sand were nearly horizontal when deposited, but were tilted to their near vertical position during a later episode of mountain building, possibly the Alice Springs Orogeny of Palaeozoic age (400-300 Ma)
Cliff of Bandiagara: Rocks are predominantly upper sandstone of the Cambrian and Ordovician periods
Purnululu National Park: The sandstone formation of the Bungle Bungle ranges is estimated to be 350 million years old, give or take a few millions. Like the reefs at the Geikie and Windjana gorges the range was formed during the Devonian period.
Mount Taishan: Geologically, it is the oldest and most important example of the paleo-metamorphic system representative of the Cambrian Period in eastern China. (AB ev)
Phong Nha - Ke Bang: The Phong Nha-Ke Bang karst has evolved since the Palaeozoic (some 400 million years ago) and so is the oldest major karst area in Asia. (AB ev)
Gondwana Rainforests: Major stages represented include the 'Age of the Pteridophytes' from the Carboniferous Period with some of the oldest elements of the world's ferns represented, and the 'Age of Conifers' in the Jurassic Period (AB ev)
Gulf of Porto: ... to have undergone two distinct cycles of volcanic activity in the Permian. Since then cycles of erosion and rejuvenation have been at work and there are high cliffs of red porphyry, rhyoliths and basaltic pillars, considerably eroded by wave action. (AB ev)
Wulingyuan: The stratums that form the sandstone peak forest landforms are mainly composed of the Yuntaiguan formation and Huangjiadun formation originating from the middle and late Devonian period of the Paleozoic era and have the characteristics of littoral clastic rocks


Ischigualasto / Talampaya
Monte San Giorgio: Der Monte San Giorgio ist die weltweit bedeutendste Fundstelle für marine Fossilien aus der Mitteltrias (245 bis 230 Mio. Jahren).) Wiki
Swiss Alps Jungfrau-Aletsch: Im Tertiär fand eine Hebung und Abtragung der aufliegenden Sedimente statt. Zum Teil kam es zu einer Überschiebung der kristallinen Masse nach Norden über Reste der Sedimente, so an der Jungfrau und südlich des Eigers.) Wiki,
Dolomites: Das Gebirge besteht zu grossen Teilen aus Sedimentgestein, das deutlich typische Schichtungen aufweist. Dazwischen findet man auch Lagen aus versteinerten Korallenriffen, die in der Tethys der Trias gewachsen waren. (Wiki)
Durmitor National Park: The dominant features are the limestone formations of the Middle and Upper Triassic, the Upper Jurassic and the Upper Cretaceous, especially the so-called Durmitorean flysch. (Nom file)
Putorana Plateau: The Putorana Plateau originates from a Permian- Triassic mantle plume, which is an immense upwelling of magma, resulting in extended tectonic movements and extensive volcanism. This created a basalt and tuff plateau in which rivers and streams carved valleys and canyons over millions of years. (AB ev)
South China Karst: The nominated property contains a cross-section of key features of the regional geology of the area including the deposition of carbonates up to the Triassic period (250 million years ago) and the subsequent tectonic evolution of the area (AB ev)


Dorset and East Devon Coast: The property's geology displays approximately 185 million years of the Earth's history, including a number of internationally important fossil localities. (Nom file)
Tsingy de Bemaraha: Les formations des Tsingy remontent à la séparation de l'Île de Madagascar de la plaque africaine, il y a 160 millions d'années. (Wiki)
Maloti Drakensberg: When Gondwanaland began to break up 200 million years ago, the resultant forces caused the extrusion of magma, known as Drakensberg lava, through fissures and cracks in the Earth's surface. (Wiki)
Western Ghats: The Western Ghats region demonstrates speciation related to the breakup of the ancient landmass of Gondwanaland in the early Jurassic period; secondly to the formation of India into an isolated landmass and the thirdly to the Indian landmass being pushed together with Eurasia (nom file)
Mount Wuyi: Mount Wuyi's Danxia landform developed mainly between the Jurassic Period and the Tertiary Period in the red horizontal or slightly declining strata
Wet Tropics of Queensland: The Wet Tropics contains one of the most complete and diverse living records of the major stages in the evolution of land plants, from the very first pteridophytes more than 200 million years ago to the evolution of seed-producing plants including the cone-bearing cycads and southern conifers (gymnosperms), followed by the flowering plants (angiosperms). (Unesco)
Mount Nimba: Mount Nimba is part of an ancient mountain range, the Guinean range, which was upthrust between the end of the Jurassic and the end of the Eocene


Dinosaur Provincial Park: The Dinosaur Park Formation, which contains most of the fossils from articulated skeletons, was primarily laid down by large rivers in very warm temperate coastal lowlands along the western margin of the Western Interior Seaway. The formation dates to the Late Campanian, about 75 million years ago (wiki) Also in WH Review
Jeju: Volcanic activity on Jeju began approximately in the Cretaceous and lasted until the early Tertiary period. (Wiki)
Mammoth Cave: Mammoth Cave exhibits 100 million years of cave-forming action and presents nearly every type of cave formation known. (Nom file)
Namib Sand Sea: Having endured arid or semi-arid conditions for roughly 55-80 million years, the Namib is also the oldest desert in the world. (wiki)
Phoenix Islands: Atoll and reef island development began when the volcanic foundations were still emergent islands in the Cretaceous to Eocene periods (AB ev)
Canaima National Park: The erosion of the Cambrian Sandstone/Quartz plateau which resulted in the current Tepui landscape and led to its "island" evolutionary aspects commenced c 100 mybp
Nahanni National Park: Dramatic mountain-building began approximately 110 million years ago when molten volcanic rock from deep within the earth rose to within 3000 m of the surface where it hardened and cooled. This force pushed up the sedimentary rock above and around the intrusion, creating the mountain ranges that surround the Nahanni River. (Parks Canada website)
Mount Sanqingshan: The Sanqingshan granites are notable for the compact occurrence of three different types of granite which were formed during the late Cretaceous period. (AB ev)
Guanacaste: The geological diversity is also of interest. It has 24,000ha of a serpentine barren (periodyte) on the Santa Elena Península, which has existed for more than 85 million years above sea level. It has pyroclastic areas in Santa Rosa NP (Miocene) and Pleistocene volcanic complexes in the region of the Orosi and Cacao volcanoes (Guanacaste NP) (AB ev)
Huangshan: It features numerous imposing peaks, whose formation dates back some 100 million years to the Mesozoic era (AB ev)
Mount Emei, including Leshan Giant Buddha: The late Cretaceous period, the Sichuan Movement, Emei original shape of the sedimentary layer of the level of deformation, displacement, there has been uneven degree of fold, faults of varying scale.
Pantanal: No Final do Cretáceo, esforços tensionais relacionados ao soerguimento em blocos da plataforma brasileira relacionado à orogênese Andina, promoveu um processo de desestabilização tectônica, acontecendo os dobramentos e falhamentos.


Atlantic Forest South-East: Most of the elevations of Serra do Mar were formed about 60 million years ago. (wiki)
Giant's Causeway: The Causeway Coast has an unparalleled display of geological formations representing volcanic activity during the early Tertiary period some 50-60 million years ago. (AB ev)
Meteora: Chemical analysis and geological evidence suggests that the pinnacles were created some 60 million years ago in the Tertiary period, emerging from the cone of a river and further transformed by earthquakes (AB ev)
St. Kilda: Created as part of the British Tertiary Volcanic province during the volcanic activity of the Palaeocene and early Eocene (c63-52Ma) which accompanied the early stages of the opening of the N Atlantic.
Vallée de Mai: at about 90Ma Madagascar parted from India and Seychelles. The isolation of the Seychelles was completed at about 65Ma when India and Seychelles drifted apart
Rainforests of the Atsinanana: Having completed its separation from all other land masses more than 60 million years ago, Madagascar's plant and animal life evolved in isolation. (Wiki)
Stevns Klint: records the exact boundary between 2 periods (Cretacious-Paleocene)
Paraty and Ilha Grande


Kenya Lake System: The East African Rift came into being approximately 40 million years ago as the African tectonic plate began to split
Swiss Tectonic Arena Sardona: Entlang der weit herum sichtbaren Linie, der "Glarner Hauptüberschiebung", schoben sich 250-300 Mio. Jahre alte Gesteine über eine Distanz von 35- 40 Kilometern auf viel jüngere, 35-50 Mio. Jahre alte Gesteine.
Messel Pit: Die Geschichte des Messeler Ölschiefers beginnt vor etwa 48 Millionen Jahren im Eozän (wiki)
Wadi Al-Hitan: The rocks present at Wadi Al-Hitan are all Middle to Late Eocene in age (wiki)
Sagarmatha National Park: Der Mount Everest ist, wie der gesamte Himalaya, während der alpidischen Gebirgsbildung entstanden. Die Konvergenz der indischen Platte und der eurasischen Platte führte zur Schliessung der Tethys mit Beginn vor etwa 50 Millionen Jahren im Eozän und in Folge zur Kollision der Kontinente Indien und Asien. (Wiki)
Heard and McDonald Islands: The base rock formation in the Heard Island is marine geology formation of middle Eocene to early Oligocene limestones; the volcanic eruptions over lie these formations. (Wiki)
Ogasawara Islands: The Ogasawara Islands were formed around 48 million years ago. (Wiki)
Pyrénées - Mont Perdu: Ces sédiments occupant une mer peu profonde ont été surélevés lors de la formation de la chaîne des Pyrénées il y a 40 millions d'années (wiki)
Three parallel rivers of Yunnan: The property is of outstanding value for displaying the geological history of the last 50 million years associated with the collision of the Indian Plate with the Eurasian Plate, the closure of the ancient Tethys Sea, and the uplifting of the Himalaya Range and the Tibetan Plateau. (crit viii)
Hyrcanian Forests: The nominated property contains Arcto-Tertiary relicts from broad-leaved forests that 25-50 million years ago covered most parts of the Northern Temperate Zone. (AB ev)


Australian Fossil Mammal Sites: The older fossils occur at Riversleigh, which boasts an outstanding collection from the Oligocene to Miocene, some 10-30 million years ago. The more recent story then moves to Naracoorte, where one of the richest deposits of vertebrate fossils from the glacial periods of the mid-Pleistocene to the current day (from 530,000 years ago to the present) is conserved. (Nom file)
Lake Baikal: It is also among the clearest of all lakes, and thought to be the world's oldest lake at 25 million years (wiki)
Papahanaumokuakea: The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands were formed, approximately 7 to 30 million years ago, as shield volcanoes over the same volcanic hotspot that formed the Emperor Seamounts to the north and the Main Hawaiian Islands to the south.(Wiki)
Wadi Rum: Die Landschaft entstand vor ca. 30 Mio. Jahren. (Wiki)
Simien National Park: This complex was formed by volcanic eruptions in the Teniary Oligocene-Miocene Age some 20-30 million years ago; ever since, it has been going through processes of uplifting and erosion
Tajik National Park: TNP includes branches of the grandiose Central-Asian mountain ranges which are the result of the uplifting of the Pamirs which started 25 millions years ago and which is still ongoing. (nom file)
China Danxia: About 23 ma ago, movement of the Himalayan range, disturbed the land around Guandong, China creating much uplift and completely changing the topography of the area. (Wiki)
Chaîne des Puys: the 30-km-long Limagne fault escarpment as the expression of continental break-up, subsidence and sedimentation which took place between 37 and 25 Ma (million years ago) (AB Eval)


Kinabalu Park: In geological terms, it is a very young mountain as the granodiorite cooled and hardened only about 10 million years ago.
Teide National Park: The shield volcanoes date back to the Miocene and early Pliocene. (Wiki)
Brazilian Atlantic Islands: Die Pyroklastika wurden dann im Oberen Miozän (Tortonium) vor rund 9 Millionen Jahren BP von phonolithischen und trachytischen Staukuppen und Gangen unterschiedlichster Zusammensetzung intrudiert. (Wiki)
Lord Howe Island: Lord Howe Island is the highly eroded remains of a 7 million-year-old shield volcano, the product of eruptions that lasted for about a half-million years. (Wiki)
Macquarie Island: The geological evolution of Macquarie Island began 10 million years ago and continues today with the island experiencing earthquakes and a rapid rate of uplift, all of which are related to active geological processes along the boundary between the two plates. Nom file
Pirin National Park: Entstanden im Rahmen der alpidischen Gebirgsbildung in Europa in der erdgeschichtlichen Epoche der Periode des Neogen (Pliozän/Miozän). Wiki
Galapagos Islands: In comparison with most oceanic archipelagos, the Galapagos are very young with the largest and youngest islands, Isabela and Fernandina, with less than one million years of existence, and the oldest islands, Espanola and San Cristobal, somewhere between three to five million years. (Wiki)
Rock Islands: The archipelago as a whole is volcanic in origin, formed during the Miocene era (AB ev)
Socotra Archipelago: "..comprises an..igneous basement from the Pre-Cambrian Era and a complex of early Palaeozoic rocks which are overlain by a mantle of limestones ...from the Cretaceous and Eocene Age..... The continental promontory on which Socotra is located separated from Africa some 36mya at the same time as the rifting which created the Gulf of Aden" (Nom File)
Malpelo: "Malpelo Island is composed of Miocene pillow lavas, volcanic breccias, and basaltic dikes that have been dated as being 16 to 17 million years old. This island and the underlying and underwater Malpelo Ridge were created along with the Carnegie Ridge in the Late Miocene by a very complex interaction between the Cocos-Nazca Spreading Centre and the Galápagos hotspot" (Wiki)
Sub-Antarctic Islands: The Auckland, Campbell and Antipodes islands are primarily of recent volcanic origin. The first two are eroded volcanic domes created 10-15 million years ago. The western sides of all three groups have been eroded significantly, creating steep cliffs, while on the eastern sides lava flows and glaciers from the Pleistocene era (about 2 million years ago) have formed U-shaped valleys, fiords and harbours. The Antipodes volcano is the youngest and least eroded.
Alejandro de Humboldt National Park: It was a Miocene-Pleistocene refuge site, particularly in the glacial eras, for the Caribbean biota (AB ev)
Gulf of California: The Gulf of California came into existence approximately 16.5 to 9.2 million years before present, when tectonic forces rifted the Baja Peninsula from the North American Plate. (EOEarth)
Puerto-Princesa Subterranean River: The karst is estimated to be between 20 million years old.
Huascaran National Park: El macizo se conforma íntegramente de granito y su levantamiento se inició en el límite neógeno-cuaternario hace 5.332 millones de años. (wiki)
Te Wahipounamu: Uplift has been fastest during the last 5 million years, and the mountains continue to be raised today by tectonic pressure, causing earthquakes on the Alpine Fault. (Wiki)
Laurisilva of Madeira: "The volcano formed atop an east-west rift in the oceanic crust along the African Plate, beginning during the Miocene epoch over 5 million years ago, continuing into the Pleistocene until about 700,000 years ago. This was followed by extensive erosion, producing two large amphitheatres open to south in the central part of the island." Wiki
Donana National Park: The marshes result from a subsidence of the continental plate in the Upper Miocene and Lower Pliocene, which caused a depression later filled by fluvial and aeolic deposits. (AB)
Garajonay: It arose about 10-12 million years ago, when huge blocks of the oceanic crust emerged from the ocean floor and different volcanic episodes increased its size.
Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley: "Palynological assemblages from the Tehuacán Formation (TF), geochronologically dated as Middle Miocene (15.6 ± 0.4 Ma), provide evidence of a highly diverse flora that, at the generic level, is similar to the extant flora in the Tehuacán Valley. We propose that, during Miocene times, plant communities may have been formed of similar botanical elements to those seen today in the region, with some taxa adapted to semiarid conditions."
Fanjingshan: "The ancient and relic plants and sporopollen indicate that the area has been montane landform at least since the Miocene epoch" (twhs description)
French Austral Lands and Seas: Miocene epoch is suggested for the common ancestry of the present−day genera of penguins
Amami-Oshima Island: The formation of the Okinawa Trough in late Miocene resulted in the separation of a chain from the Eurasian Continent, forming an archipelago of small islands. Terrestrial species became isolated on these small islands and evolved to form unique and rich biota. (AB ev)
Sinharaja Forest: Ecological separation from India in the late Miocene. The OUV emphasises the endemism arising from this.
Central Highlands: Ecological separation from India in the late Miocene.


Fossil Hominid Sites: Sterkfontein geologically revealed the earliest record of hominid in southern Africa (close to 3.5 million years ago), Australopithecus africanus who lived between 2-3 million years ago in the Pliocene
Lower Valley of the Awash: Lucy, 3.2 million years ago
Xinjiang Tianshan: The landforms and ecosystems of the site have been preserved since the Pliocene epoch (Brief Description)
Lower Valley of the Omo: The oldest sediments are 3.5 Million years old (Pliocene).
Kilimanjaro National Park: the important thing about Kilimanjaro is the late emergence within the Rift Valley setting – this was largely within the last 3 million years.
Cocos Island: An Argon-Potassium radiometric determination established the age of the oldest rocks between 1.91 and 2.44 million years (Late Pliocene). Wiki
Lake Turkana: This property's main geological features stem from the Pliocene and Holocene periods (4million to 10,000 years old). (Nom file)
Ohrid Region: The Ohrid and Prespa Lakes belong to a group of Dessaret basins that originated from a geotectonic depression during the Pliocene epoch up to five million years ago (Wiki)
Gunung Mulu: Major uplift that occurred during the late Pliocene to Pleistocene is well represented in the 295 km of explored caves as a series of major cave levels (crit viii)
Greater Blue Mountains: The Greater Blue Mountains area is the centre of diversity of eucalypts, providing an outstanding record of the products of evolutionary processes associated with the global climatic changes of the late Tertiary and the Quaternary. (nom file)
Mount Kenya: Mount Kenya is a stratovolcano that was active in the Plio-Pleistocene (wiki) / It is an ancient extinct volcano, which during its period of activity (3.1-2.6 million years ago) is thought to have risen to 6,500 m (AB ev)
Central Amazon Conservation Complex: Aufgrund der damit verbundenen Sperrung des Abflusses kehrte sich vor circa 10 bis 15 Millionen Jahren der Flusslauf um. Weil aber zunächst im Zentrum des Amazonasbeckens eine Hebung stattfand, geschah dies in zwei Phasen: Während die Osthänge bereits über einen Amazonas-Vorläufer in den Atlantik entwässerten, bildeten sich auf der Westseite riesige Binnenseen, deren Ablagerungen heute großenteils den Untergrund der Terra firme ausmachen. Erst als diese Seen nach rund fünf Millionen Jahren ebenfalls nach Osten entwässerten, konnte sich das heutige Flussnetz entwickeln. (Wiki)
El Pinacate: The volcanoes have erupted sporadically for about 4 million years. (Wiki)
Whale Sanctuary of El Vizcaino: Despite this bias, diagnostic gray whale fossils have been reported from both Pleistocene and late Pliocene marine strata of the North Pacific basin, attesting to the origin of this lineage prior to the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation in the late Pliocene.
Göreme NP: This layer of tuff was in turn overlain by a series of andesitic and basaltic lavas, between the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene. (EOearth)
Rwenzori Mountains: The mountains formed about three million years ago in the late Pliocene as a result of an uplifted block of crystalline rocks such as: gneiss, amphibolite granite and quartzite,[1] "pushed up by tremendous forces originating deep within the earth's crust". (Wiki)
Redwood: In its limited coastal location it "escaped" the last Ice Age. "Seqouia sempervirens had reached its northernmost limits during the Paleocene and Eocene, 65 MYA to 38 MYA. It is known to have been on the islands of Svalbard, today part of Norway and well above the Arctic Circle (Snyder 1992). During the Oligocene and Miocene, 38 MYA to 6 MYA, its range had moved south due to cooler and drier climates, and by the Pliocene it had become established in its present location"
Okapi Wildlife Reserve: "The end of the Pliocene epoch (2.5-6 million years ago) saw a number of long necked giraffids evolve, but largely unsuccessfully with only 2 surving to this day"
Cape Floral Region: on the basis of unchanged landform since then, period of most speciation and establishment of general climate patterns as of today despite subsequent ups/downs: "While the radiation of Cape clades occurred throughout the late Cenozoic, speciation was most prolific during the Pliocene."
Archipiélago de Revillagigedo: "Clarion is the westernmost and oldest island (early Pliocene). Rota Partida is a rocky islet and is the throat of an old volcano. It is younger than Clarion but older than Socorro, the largest island (early Pleistocene), and San Benedicto, the youngest and northernmost island (late Pleistocene)." See
Colchic Rainforests and Wetlands : This is the result of millions of years of uninterrupted evolution and speciation processes within the Colchic Pliocene refugium. (AB ev)

Early Pleistocene

Sangiran Early Man Site: Hominid remains are 1.5 million years old
Atapuerca: The earliest fossil hominid remains in Europe, the Pleistocene deposits, from around 800,000 BP as established by palaeomagnetic analysis, were found in the Gran Dolina site in the Sierra de Atapuerca (AB ev)
Ngorongoro: Olduvai Gorge gave its name to "Oldowan". This "is the archaeological term used to refer to the stone tool industry that was used by Hominines during the Lower Paleolithic period. The Oldowan is significant for being the earliest stone tool industry in prehistory, being used from 2.6 million years ago up until 1.7 million years ago" (Wiki) Later remains have also been found at Olduvai.
Yellowstone: The caldera formed during the last of three supereruptions over the past 2.1 million years. (Wiki)
Lake Malawi: It is variously estimated at about 40,000 years old or about one to two million years. (Wiki)
Lake Turkana: oldest hominid remains are 2 million years old
Henderson Island: Durch weitere vulkanische Aktivitäten, die vor 900.000 Jahren zum Entstehen der Insel Pitcairn geführt haben, erfolgte eine Verformung der Erdkruste derart, dass das Henderson-Atoll noch weiter über die Meeresoberfläche angehoben wurde. (Wiki)
Aggtelek and Slovak Karst: Beginning some two million years ago, extensive and complex surface and underground erosion developed in this rock into classic forms of temperate climate karst.
Victoria Falls: "Since the upliftiing of the Makdadikgadi Pan area some 2 mya the Zambesi.... has been cutting through the basalt .... and forming a series of retreating gorges" (AB)
Darien National Park: Was the bridge between the two continents of the Western Hemisphere, which has emerged from below sea level on several occasions in the distant past, most recently in the early Pleistocene. (AB ev)
Los Katios National Park: Acted as a filter or barrier to the interchange of fauna between the Americas during the Tertiary and Pleistocene. lt is thought to be the site of a Pleistocene refuge, a hypothesis supported by the high proportion of endemic plants (AB ev)
Gough and Inaccessible Islands: Gough Island : 4 main periods of volcanism are recognised. Older Basaltic 2.4 -.52Ma, Intrusion of aegerine-augite trachyte plugs 0.8-0.47, voluminous trachyte extrusion 0.3-0.12 Ma and finally to eruption of the Edinburgh Basalt 0.2-0.13Ma". Inaccessible : "..... a volcanic superstructure built up during the last three million years
Iguacu: formed on the rim of the basaltic Paraní Plateau, Serra Geral Formation. This volcanic plateau formed in Lower Cretaceous period some 132 million years ago.. (The lava) "covered a former desert that was present in the region, and there were several stages to the lava flow (creating interlayered basalt with sandstone layers which has been subjected to various faults and tectonic movements.."Although no absolute ages exist on the evolution of the fluvial system, it has been suggested that the falls have been continuously wandering upstream to its present position by progressive headwater erosion at a rate of 1.4-2.1 cm/year in the last 1.5-2.0 million years
Iguazu National Park: formed on the rim of the basaltic Paraní Plateau, Serra Geral Formation. This volcanic plateau formed in Lower Cretaceous period some 132 million years ago.. (The lava) "covered a former desert that was present in the region, and there were several stages to the lava flow (creating interlayered basalt with sandstone layers which has been subjected to various faults and tectonic movements.."Although no absolute ages exist on the evolution of the fluvial system, it has been suggested that the falls have been continuously wandering upstream to its present position by progressive headwater erosion at a rate of 1.4-2.1 cm/year in the last 1.5-2.0 million years
Grand Canyon: The base level and course of the Colorado River (or its ancestral equivalent) changed 5.3M years ago when the Gulf of California opened and lowered the river's base level (its lowest point). This increased the rate of erosion and cut nearly all of the Grand Canyon's current depth by 1.2M years ago
Komodo National Park: the ancestor of the Komodo dragon most likely evolved in Australia and spread westward, reaching the Indonesian island of Flores by 900,000 years ago. Comparisons between fossils and living Komodo dragons on Flores show that the lizard's body size has remained relatively stable since then
Peninsula Valdes: Esta roca esta formado por diversos perfiles de la era Terciaria, y entre 25 a 2 millones de anos se sucedieron diferentes ingresiones y regresiones del mar, sumado a cambios de temperatura y corrientes que generaron diversos estratos que hoy vemos representados por ejemplo en el alto acantilado de la Punta del mareógrafo en Puerto Piramides.
Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries: The first discovered skull of the animal, in south China, is estimated to be 2 million years old.
Garamba National Park: "The transition from the equatorial forest to northern latitude savannas was most probably gradual throughout the early Pleistocene"
Virunga National Park: The current course of the Congo River formed 1.5-2 million years BP, during the Pleistocene (Wiki), Albertine Rift system from "Late Pliocene (~ 3Ma) to Early Pleistocene (~ 2 Ma (Final emergence of the Eastern Mountain Gorilla seems to have been late Pleistocene)
Salonga National Park: "Along with the common chimpanzee, the bonobo is the closest extant relative to humans. Because the two species are not proficient swimmers, the formation of the Congo River 1.5–2 million years ago possibly led to the speciation of the bonobo. Bonobos live south of the river, and thereby were separated from the ancestors of the common chimpanzee, which live north of the river" and (also Wiki) "DNA evidence suggests the bonobo and common chimpanzee species effectively separated from each other fewer than one million years ago".
Kahuzi-Biega National Park: "Straddling the Albertine Rift and the Congo Basin" - "The current course of the Congo River formed 1.5-2 million years BP, during the Pleistocene"
Hubei Shennongjia: the area acted as a refuge during the "Quaternary Ice Ages" (Quaternary Glaciation is also called the Pleistocene Glaciation)

Middle Pleistocene

Peking Man Site: Homo Erectus Pekinensis lived in the Middle Pleistocene Period, 700,000 to 200,000 years before modern times (AB ev)
Lower Valley of the Omo: The oldest hominid remains are 200,000 years old (Ionian).
Mount Carmel Caves: 500,000 years ago (AB ev)
Lenggong Valley: 1.83 million years ago and again 200,000-100,000 years ago (AB ev)
Great Barrier Reef: The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA) considers the earliest evidence of complete reef structures to have been 600,000 years ago. (Wiki)
Carlsbad Caverns: The decoration of Carlsbad Cavern with stalactites, stalagmites and an incredible variety of other formations began more than 500,000 years ago after much of the cavern had been carved out.
Fraser Island: It is made up of sand that has been accumulating for approximately 750,000 years on volcanic bedrock that provides a natural catchment for the sediment which is carried on a strong offshore current northwards along the coast. (wiki)
Skocjan Caves: Vor einigen 100.000 Jahren stürzten Höhlendecken über dem Fluss ein. Dadurch entstanden die Einsturzdolinen Grosses Tal (Velika dolina, 165 m tief) und Kleines Tal (Mala dolina, 120 m tief). In der Sohle des Grossen Tals versickert die Reka endgültig. (wiki)
Australian Fossil Mammal Sites: The older fossils occur at Riversleigh, which boasts an outstanding collection from the Oligocene to Miocene, some 10-30 million years ago. The more recent story then moves to Naracoorte, where one of the richest deposits of vertebrate fossils from the glacial periods of the mid-Pleistocene to the current day (from 530,000 years ago to the present) is conserved. (Nom file)
Hawaii Volcanoes: Mauna Loa has probably been erupting for at least 700,000 years. (Wiki)
Volcanoes of Kamchatka
Mount Etna: About 300,000 years ago, volcanism began occurring to the southwest of the summit (centre top of volcano) then, before activity moved towards the present centre 170,000 years ago. (Wiki)
Isole Eolie: The present shape of the Aeolian Islands is the result of volcanic activity over a period of 260,000 years. (Wiki)
Lena Pillars: Lena Pillars were formed some 400000 years ago. Nom file
Tongariro National Park: In geological terms, the landforms of Tongariro National Park are comparatively young. These volcanoes are all less than 500,000 years old and still active.
Pitons Management Area: Qualibou, also known as the Soufrière Volcanic Centre is a 3.5 X 5 km wide caldera on the island of Saint Lucia that formed approximately 32-39,000 years ago. This eruption also formed the Choiseul Tuff which covers the south east portion of the island. The Pitons are two large lava domes that formed 200-300,000 years ago, some time before the formation of the caldera and since then other domes have filled the caldera floor. (wiki)
Sangay National Park: Sangay developed in three distinct phases. Its oldest edifice, formed between 500,000 and 250,000 years ago, is evidenced today by a wide scattering of material opening to the east, defined by a crest about 4,000 m (13,120 ft) high. (wiki)

Late Pleistocene

Willandra Lakes: The presence of settlements of Homo Sapiens Sapiens is attested to in the Lake Mungo region from ca.-40,000 years.
Petroglyphs of the Mongolian Altai: Oldest petroglyphs date from the Late Pleistocene (AB ev)
Gobustan Rock Art: The c6000 petroglyphs across 4 locations date from c 30000ybp to the Middle Ages. Little information is provided about numbers for each period. The Nom File identifies 4 stylistic groups across the High Pleistocene and Early Holocene (to c9k ybp), followed by examples for Neolithic, Eneolithic, Bronze, Iron and later. The OUV is based on Crit iii ...The engravings ... represent so graphically activities connected with hunting and fishing at a time when the climate and vegetation of the area were warmer and wetter than today.... As such, the earliest periods seem to be of the greater importance .. when the Caspian was much higher and, indeed, connected with the Black Sea
Coa Valley and Siega Verde: 22,000-10,000 BC
Altamira Cave: "The artistic apogee, known as Magdalenian, corresponds to the end of the Ice Age, from 17,000 to 13,000 BP. This was the period of the major works in the decorated caves" (AB ev)
Vézère Valley: Lascaux estimated to be 17,300 years old (wiki)
Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka: rock painting, spanning periods from the Mesolithic to the Historic (AB ev)
Tasmanian Wilderness: 30,000 BP (earliest occupation)
Kakadu National Park: Oldest paintings ca. 20,000 years old
Serra da Capivara: "oldest traces of rock art in South America; they have been dated to 26,000-22,000 BC" (AB ev)
Pyrénées - Mont Perdu: "Remains of human settlement - stone circles, caves and a dolmen - dating from the Palaeolithic (40,000-10,000 BC) have been found in the area" - it is unclear when the tradition of pastoralism started
Lakes of Ounianga: Les lacs d'Ounianga forment le reste d'un lac plus grand qui occupait le bassin il y a 5000 - 15000 ans. (Wiki)
Wrangel Island: the latest separation of the island from the mainland took place about 10000 years ago.
Great Smoky Mountains: Great Smoky Mountains National Park is of world importance as the outstanding example of of the diverse Arcto-Tertiary geoflora era, providing an indication of what the late Pleistocene flora looked like before recent human impacts (criteria i). It is large enough to be a significant example of continuing biological evolution of this natural system (criteria ii).
West Norwegian Fjords: The high mountain surface is a slightly undulating peneplain dissected by rivers, the courses of which were deepened, widened and scoured 20,000 years ago by the glaciers of the last Ice Age.
Aldabra Atoll: Most of the land surface comprises ancient coral reef (~125,000 years old) which has been repeatedly raised above sea level. (Nom file)
Plitvice Lakes: During ten to twenty thousand years, in the latitudinally running faults some ten to twenty barriers have been created; they divided the Korana riverbed and closed from the north the lake basins created this way.
Morne Trois Pitons: Seven major andesiticedacitic volcanic centres have been active in southern Dominica since the late Pleistocene: Morne Trois Piton, Wotten Waven/Micotrin, Valley of Desolation, Watt Mountain, Grand Soufrière Hills, Morne Anglais/John, and the Plat Pays volcanic complex (Lindsay et al., 2003, 2005). Available ages for these centres range from ~50,000 to 450 years, and most have had eruptions within the last 10 ka
Talamanca Range-La Amistad Reserves: At least since the last glaciation about 25,000 years ago, tropical rain forests have covered most of the area... (AB ev)
Shiretoko: For example, sea cliffs around Utoro range from 60m to 120m in height and were formed from andesitic lava from the eruption of Mt Rausu 80,000 years ago and subsequent marine erosion. (AB ev)
Saryarka: The increase of climate's aridity (in Late Pleistocene - Holocene) led to the break-up of a large (in ancient times) river drainage system and to the creation of a lake chain along the Turgai hollow (nom file)
Ningaloo Coast: Today, Ningaloo Reef grows on a substrate of fossil reefs that formed during the last glacial stage, which peaked approximately 20,000 years ago (nom file)
Jiuzhaigou Valley: From the Quaternary to the late Pleistocene period, the altitude of many Jiuzhai Valley mountains was over 4,000 meters (13,123 feet), close to the snowline. As the glacial climate approached, glacial action took place in alpine areas, and glaciers extending down to 2,800m (9,186 feet) valleys, leaving behind terminal and side moraines and dike barriers which blocked the water and helped to shape lakes.
Wood Buffalo National Park: There is evidence of multiple crossings of bison to and from Asia starting before 500,000 years ago and continuing until at least 220,000 years ago. (Wiki)
Waterton Glacier International Peace Park: The geologic event that would define the landscape began with a global cooling trend approximately 2 million years ago.
Discovery Coast: As planícies fluvio-marinhas (complexos praiais, estuarinos e aluviais) são constituídas por sedimentos quaternários, depositados no intervalo de tempo entre o Pleistoceno Superior e o Holoceno.
Mount Athos: The mediterranean coniferous forest evolved after the end of the last glaciation in Greece during the Heinrich Event.
Lorentz National Park: The lowering and rising of the sea level during the glacial and inter-glacial periods of the Pleistocene, along with continuous activity in the mobile belt which characterizes the contact zone of the two colliding lithospheric plates, has continued to promote the great biodiversity of the island of New Guinea in general, and in the Lorentz area in particular. (EOEarth)
East Rennell: Near the end of the Pleistocene, tectonic movements raised the seabed sufficiently to allow coral building on Bellona, Rennell and Indispensable Reefs. (EOEarth)
Hierapolis-Pamukkale: Pammukale: age estimations show that travertine deposition started during the late Pleistocene. (Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science)
Mana Pools: From that same late Pleistocene era, pollen records prove an increase of mangrove and coastal vegetation, implying an extension of coastal wetlands during flooding of the broad, low-gradient Zambezi inner shelf area. (EOEarth)
Trang An: During the Pleistocene and Holocene, the margins of the Trang An massif were invaded and re-worked by the sea many times. AND the way that humans interacted with the natural landscape and adapted to major changes in environment over a time period spanning more than 30,000 years, between about 1,200 BP and 33,100 BP (AB ev)
Blue and John Crow Mountains: Fauna seems to date from late Pleistocene
Decorated cave of Pont d'Arc: Art going back to 35k ybp. See e.g "The only known depiction of a Late Pleistocene Ice Age leopard (Chauvet Cave) shows a coat pattern, similar to modern leopards." From wiki article on that animal
Sian Ka'an: "Sian Ka'an lies on a partially emerged coastal limestone plain which forms part of the extensive barrier reef system along the eastern coast of Central America. Much of the reserve lies in a zone of recent Pleistocene origin which still appears to be in a transitional stage."
Gorham's Cave Complex: Neanderthal life + deposits covering the past 125,000 years (nom file)
Lut Desert: Aridity and geomorphological features date from the Late Quaternary, so Late Pleistocene at its earliest
Caves and Ice Age Art: Aurignacian period (dates from 43,000 to 33,000 years ago) AB ev
ǂKhomani Cultural Landscape: Until relatively recently the nominated cultural landscape was the domain of hunter-gatherers belonging to the linguistic group of the |Xam, which is said to have emerged around 20,000 years ago.
Chiribiquete National Park: The rock art is associated with the earliest periods of human settlement in South America, perhaps around 20,000 BCE (AB ev)
Jomon Prehistoric Sites: The pre-agricultural society known as the Jomon culture exploited this rich environment starting about 15,000 years ago. (AB ev)
Bwindi Impenetrable National Park: "most of nowadays forests are not further than 12,000 years old, Bwindi's vegetation has been weaving itself into tangles over 25,000 years.... Bwindi acted as Pleistocene refugium and it was able to protect the jungle during the ice age when Africa didn't have such dense vegetation cover. It served as a water tower for most of the wildlife species that relied on the forest unlike other areas that didn't have any forest or vegetation cover"


Ennedi Massif: originated in what is called the Neolithic Subpluvial or Holocene Wet Phase (wiki nl)
Ilulissat Icefjord: Here the seabed has been pushed up into a submarine hill several hundred meters high, which marks the position of the glacier front approx. 9000 years ago
High Coast / Kvarken Archipelago: 9,600 years ago the landscape has risen close to 500 m The highest parts break the surface of the water
Pitons of Reunion: Le piton de la Fournaise, comme on le connaït aujourd'hui, date d'environ 4 700 ans. Cet âge correspond à l'effondrement majeur qui a donné naissance à l'enclos Fouqué en s'accompagnant d'explosions cataclysmiques. (Wiki)
Belize Barrier Reef: the reef was created as recently as 3000 years ago
Srebarna Nature Reserve: "At the beginning of the Holocene about 11000 BC right after the so called Flandrian Transgression the riverbed underwent significnat changes .......according to palinological research Lake Srebarna has been formed about 8000 years ago"
Surtsey: 14 November 1963
Sundarbans National Park: The tract of the Sundarbans is of recent origin, raised by the deposition of sediments formed due to soil erosion in the Himalayas. The substratum consists mainly of Quaternary Era sediments, sand and silt mixed with marine salt deposits and clay. Geologists have detected a southeastern slope and tilting of the Bengal basin during the Tertiary. Because of neo-tectonic movements during the 10th-12th century AD, the Bengal Basin titled eastward. Evidence from borehole studies indicate that while the westernside of the Sundarbans is relatively stable, the southeastern corner is an active sedimentary area and is subsiding. (link)
The Sundarbans: The tract of the Sundarbans is of recent origin, raised by the deposition of sediments formed due to soil erosion in the Himalayas. The substratum consists mainly of Quaternary Era sediments, sand and silt mixed with marine salt deposits and clay. Geologists have detected a southeastern slope and tilting of the Bengal basin during the Tertiary. Because of neo-tectonic movements during the 10th-12th century AD, the Bengal Basin titled eastward. Evidence from borehole studies indicate that while the westernside of the Sundarbans is relatively stable, the southeastern corner is an active sedimentary area and is subsiding. (link)
Kaziranga National Park: What Kaziranga is today was perhaps once the main channel of the red river which habitually changed its course over the century due to earthquakes at various points of time....This volatile movement of the river is surely responsible for the heavy deposition of silt and the simultaneous formation of beels of various lengths and depths in this area. The landmasses formed by the heavy deposition of silt in this riverine area thus gradually stabilised with the natural growth of saccharum and other grass species. The swift and unpredictable river still erodes a large portion of the land mass, particularly in those areas where bigger trees have not yet sprung up...this on-going process of erosion and deposition of silt on the northern boundary of the park, which is the Brahmaputra river itself.
Wadden Sea: The Wadden Sea has evolved over the last 8,000 years being a very young ecosystem in geomorphological and evolutionary terms (nom file)
Belovezhskaya Pushcha / Bialowieza Forest: The area was glaciated by the German-Polish Ice sheet during the Pleistocene. The forest only grew after the last ice age. The forest area dates back to 8000 BC
Danube Delta: "The modern Danube Delta began forming after 4,000 BC in a gulf of the Black Sea, when the sea rose to its present level. A sandy barrier blocked the Danube gulf where the river initially built its delta. Upon filling the gulf with sediments, the delta advanced outside the barrier-blocked estuary after 3,500 BC building several successive lobes." (Wiki)
Primeval Beech Forests: "Beech reached Western and Eastern Carpathian territory in an Epiatlantic period 5.000 years ago." (Nomination file, 2007, page 33) "Consecutively initiated from south to north, old forest habitats have been undergoing a development into extremely differentiated beech forest landscapes for some 6,000 years." (Nomination file, extension 2011, page 11)
Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve: It is thought that monarchs were originally tropical butterflies that underwent range expansion. Scientists are not sure how long the monarch's spectacular annual migration to Mexico has been occurring; it may be as old as 10,000 years (when the glaciers last retreated from North America) or as young as a few centuries
Ha Long Bay: early Holocene: Rainwater flowed into crevices in the limestone that had formed from tectonic activity. This steady erosion constantly widened the cracks, eventually creating today's formations. (wiki)
Glacier parks: Geologists believe that Glacier Bay existed during a minimum of four Glacial periods ending with the Little Ice Age, which has a 4,000 years old record, as the latest period. All glaciers in the park today are said to be remnants of this glacial period. (wiki)
Coiba National Park: Coiba Island and the smaller islands in the Gulf of Chiriquí are known as landbridge islands, meaning that they were last connected to the Mainland during the end of the Pleistocene, approximately 12,000 years ago. With a direct connection to tierra firme, they shared a common flora and fauna with the continent, but since their separation, new ecological and biological processes have resulted in the readjustment of the flora and fauna (nom file)
Lagoons of New Caledonia: Process of reef formation started in the Pleistocene, lagoons of today became water-filled during the Holocene.
Los Glaciares: Lago Argentino... ist der grösste See in Argentinien und über 15.000 Jahre alt. (Wiki)
Shark Bay: Later, a rise in sea levels during the Holocene epoch (the most recent 10,000 years) flooded the region and created Shark Bay's unique double-basin form.
Noel Kempff Mercado National Park: Pollen and charcoal records from two large, shallow lakes reveal that throughout most of the past 50,000 yr Noel Kempff Mercado National Park, in northeastern lowland Bolivia (southwestern Amazon Basin), was predominantly covered by savannas and seasonally dry semideciduous forests.
Huanglong: The travertine in Huanglong has lasted for thousands of decades on account of the karst geologic effect.
Keoladeo National Park: The unique habitat is the result of the Ajan Bund built in the 18th Century.
Desembarco del Granma National Park: Desembarco del Granma National Park, with its uplifted marine terraces and associated ongoing development of karst topography and features, represents a globally significant example of geomorphologic and physiographic features and ongoing geological processes. (Unesco)
Tikal National Park: The Mesoamerican tropical rainforest evolved after the last glaciation in the Late Pleistocene.
Rio Platano Biosphere Reserve: The Mesoamerican tropical rainforest evolved after the last glaciation in the Late Pleistocene.
Manas Wildlife Sanctuary: The course of the Manas river formed in the Holocene and continued to change as late as the 20th century.
Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers: The Valley of Flowers has its own microclimate that was made posible only after the end of the ice age in the Himalayas
Ujung Kulon National Park: The explosion of nearby Krakatau in 1883 produced a tsunami (giant wave) that eliminated the villages and crops of the coastal areas on the western peninsula, and covered the entire area in a layer of ash averaging 30 cm thick. This caused the total evacuation of the peninsula by humans, thereby allowing it to become a repository for much of Java's flora and fauna, and most of the remaining lowland forest on the island. (Wiki)
Shirakami-Sanchi: Having escaped glaciation and established itself over 8,000 years ago...
Chitwan National Park: The Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forest was made possible only after the end of the ice age in the Himalayas.
Tubbataha Reefs: it is believed that the atolls of Tubbataha began to form thousands of years ago as fringing reefs around volcanic islands.
Okavango Delta: During the Holocene both lakes dried up gradually
Everglades: "Only about 5000 years ago did South Florida's climate take on its current sub-tropical and monsoonal character of dry winters followed by hot moist summers with large amounts of rain (on average 50-60 inches per year"
Olympic National Park: The NP is almost entirely a "post glacial" creation " During the last Ice Age, continental glaciers surrounded the Park on all but its west side, with layers of ice up to 3,500 feet thick. This scouring by the continental glaciers created a noticeably sharp rise from sea level on the flanks of the mountains on the east and north edges of the Park. At the same time, today's river valleys were choked with floes of ice from alpine glaciers, the remnants of which dot the Park's mountains today"
Yosemite National Park: Yosemite as seen today is primarily a "post glacial" creation. "When the last glacier finally melted approximately 10,000 years ago, rock debris dammed the valley and created Lake Yosemite. Tributary creeks plummeted off sheer cliffs and gave birth to the Park's famed waterfalls. Sediment continued to fill the lake through natural processes until it eventually formed the Yosemite Valley floor."
Banc d'Arguin: Formed first by a "marine transgresion" from sea rise following the last ice age which "invaded" the shore line and was then followed by an ongoing process of tidal and wind sand deposition. See
Djoudj: A wetland area of lakes, ponds and bayous situated within the Senegal River Delta, which has developed across the Holocene period following a "Marine Transgression" around 5500BP which created a large bay, subsequently filled by sediment brought down by the river. See Section 2.1 and map of changing shoreline here -
Sanganeb: the coral reefs we see along the Red Sea today are primarily Holocene
Western Tien-Shan: The Tienshan mountains were uplifted, folded, metamorposed etc in the Paleozoic Era (540-250mybp). But, from 25mybp, faulting and sedimentation changed the landscape. Then finally the entire area was glaciated during the late Pleistocene and Holocene. So what we see today is a largely (but of course not completely) "post glacial" Holocene landscape
iSimangaliso Wetland Park: See "Formation of Lake St Lucia" on page 3 of the linked pdf.
Uvs Nuur Basin: During the Holocene, the current ecological "mix" was created.
Ahwar of Southern Iraq: The natural components ... as we know them today were formed 3000 years ago. (Nom file)
Pimachiowin Aki: The Canadian Shield of which this is a part was totally glaciated in the last period. Everything "natural" now present in the inscribed Ecosystem must have "arrived" since then
Vatnajökull National Park: Vatnajökull glacier was formed ca. 2500 years ago
Migratory Bird Sanctuaries : The Yellow Sea itself is shallow and relatively recently formed & bird migration is relatively recent too
Getbol, Korean Tidal Flat: For the migratory birds
Ivindo National Park : "There is strong evidence that forest cover was reduced during the last Ice Age, lasting from 1.6 million to 10,000 years ago. While forested areas in the Congo River Basin are known to have persisted in some areas called refugia..........About 10,000 years ago, as the last Ice Age ended, glaciers receded and rainfall increased. The changing climate allowed savannas to be reclaimed by trees, and the forest grew to reach its current size."
Kaeng Krachan Forest: The post-glacial, Holocene climate has created both the flora/fauna mix and the landscape.
Dong Phayayen: The post-glacial, Holocene climate has created both the flora/fauna mix and the landscape.
Thungyai-Huai Kha Khaeng: The post-glacial, Holocene climate has created both the flora/fauna mix and the landscape.
Dja Faunal Reserve: "There is strong evidence that forest cover was reduced during the last Ice Age, lasting from 1.6 million to 10,000 years ago. While forested areas in the Congo River Basin are known to have persisted in some areas called refugia..........About 10,000 years ago, as the last Ice Age ended, glaciers receded and rainfall increased. The changing climate allowed savannas to be reclaimed by trees, and the forest grew to reach its current size."
Cerrado Protected Areas: Much Cerrado vegetation developed in prototype during the Cretaceous. Subsequently the area it covered extended and retracted particularly in exchange with Amazonian biota without significant underlying geological change. A peak of biodiversity was reached by the Pleistocene. Climatic changes and human activity (particularly hunting and fire) altered this considerably particularly via the loss of much of the megafauna. As a result today's preserved areas are significantly Holocene.

Built in the 10th millennium BC

Tadrart Acacus: 12,000 BC to AD 100
Wadi Rum: "combination of 25,000 petroglyphs with 20,000 inscriptions and their continuity over a period of at least 12,000 years sets Wadi Rum apart" (decision doc)
Göbekli Tepe

Built in the 9th millennium BC

Caves of Yagul and Mitla: In the Naquitz phase (8,900-6,700 BC) within the Paleo- Indian period, evidence from Guilá Naquitz cave has been found for domestication of local plants including gourds, squash, beans and corn.(AB ev)
Rock-Art of the Mediterranean Basin: "The dating of this art has been the subject of many years of debate among prehistorians. It is now generally accepted that the art is not Palaeolithic, because of the culture that it depicts, but its precise attribution - whether it began in the Epipalaeolithic (from c 10,000 to 5000 BC) or in the full Neolithic that followed - is still not fully established. The nomination dossier proposes an elegant partial reconciliation of the two points of view: ... This may interpreted as a bracket in time between c 8000 and 3500 BC." (AB ev)
Rock Art in the Hail Region: the record of surviving rock art commences shortly after 10,000 years ago (AB ev)

Built in the 8th millennium BC

Cueva de las Manos: "which has been established by excavation and radiocarbon analysis to c 9300 BP" (AB ev)
Çatalhöyük: Çatalhöyük developed as a settlement in the Neolithic period and was occupied for 2,000 years from approximately 7,400 - 5,500 BC (AB ev)
Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley: Between around 7800 and 3500 BCE, the nomadic settler groups introduced the domestication of maize (AB ev)

Built in the 7th millennium BC

Choirokoitia: The Neolithic settlement of Choirokoitia, occupied from the 7th to the 4th millennium B.C., is one of the most important prehistoric sites in the eastern Mediterranean (AB ev)
Southern Öland: About Alby: "The village prehistory dates to the early Stone Age when settlers from the mainland migrated across the ice bridge connecting the island via the Kalmar Strait about 6000 to 7000 BC" (wiki) and "The first human beings to come to the island of Öland were the hunter-gatherers who arrived 8000 years ago." (AB ev)
Hawraman/Uramanat: The vertical migration pattern in Hawraman/Uramanat is among the oldest types of migration, dating to the early Neolithic. (AB ev) Late Neolithic (c. 7000–5000 BCE). (wiki)

Built in the 6th millennium BC

Tassili n'Ajjer
Rock Drawings in Valcamonica
Chinchorro Culture: Chinchorro, a society of marine hunter-gatherers who lived here from approximately 7,400 BP to 2,840 BP (5,450 BCE to 890 BCE).

Built in the 5th millennium BC

Prehistoric Pile Dwellings
Neolithic Flint Mines at Spiennes
Rock Art of Alta
Susa: representing the beginnings of urban development in the proto-Elamite and Elamite periods, from the late fifth millennium BCE (OUV)
Pimachiowin Aki: "Ancient and contemporary livelihood sites, habitations and processing sites, travel routes, named places, trap lines, widely dispersed across the landscape, while being sacred and ceremonial sites, reflect the way they, and their Indigenous ancestors, have made use of this and adjacent landscapes for over 7,000 years" (AB ev)
Budj Bim Cultural Landscape: 6,600 years old
Himā Cultural area: cultural continuity of 7,000 years
Arslantepe Mound : The mound has been the subject of several excavation campaigns since the early 1960s, which brought to light a multi-layered sequence of levels ranging from the end of the 5th millennium BCE (AB ev)
Ennedi Massif: Rock Art: Sixteen styles and three different periods have been identified: archaic (7,000 - 6,000 BP), bovidian (5,000 - 2,000 BP), and cameline (2,000 BP – present day) (OUV)

Built in the 4th millennium BC

Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump
Brú na Bóinne
Twyfelfontein: Oldest findings date from 5,850 BP
Laponian Area: "The area ...was first occupied in the Palaeolithic period, towards the end of the last Ice Age, about 10,000 years BP. The settlers were nomadic hunter-gatherers, subsisting principally on wild reindeer.... remains of human settlement over wide areas of the site indicating a hunting and fishing culture from between 3500 and 2000 BC evolving around 2000 BC into use of trapping pit systems. Extensive reindeer domestication and nomadic life based on herding of tame reindeer did not develop until the17th and 18th Centuries" (IUCN) "This area has been occupied continuously by the Saami people since prehistoric times (having) .. arrived from the east 4000-5000 years ago ...(They) began hunting wild reindeer, like their predecessors, but slowly replaced them by domestlcated herds, wlth which they migrated during the year. They practised a form of transhumance, spending the summer in the mountains and the winters in the coniferous forests to the east. (ICOMOS) " Timeline based on arrival of Sami.
Shahr-i Sokhta: The settlement of Shahr-i Sokhta was founded c. 3200 BCE (AB ev)
Ahwar of Southern Iraq: The cities flourished between 4th and 2nd millennium BC (AB ev)
Liangzhu Archaeological Site: The remains date from ca. 3300-3100 BCE
Krzemionki prehistoric striped flint mining region: dating from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age (about 3900 to 1600 BCE)
Petroglyphs of the Lake Onega and the White Sea: dated 6 to 7 thousand years ago

Built in the 3rd Millennium BC

Caral-Supe : Radiocarbon analysis carried out ... at the Caral site confirms that the development of the site can be located in time between the years 3000 to 1800 B.C. (AB ev)
Bat, Al-Khutm and Al-Ayn
Moenjodaro: Built around 2600 BC and abandoned around 1800
Neolithic Orkney
Megalithic Temples of Malta
Hal Saflieni Hypogeum
Uluru: beginning of the Anangu culture
Byblos: Beginnings of the Phoenician civilization - "During the 3rd millennium BC, the first signs of a town can be observed, with the remains of well-built houses of uniform size. This was the period when the Phoenician civilization began to develop." (AB ev)
Pyramids (Memphis): Great Pyramids of Giza: ca. 2560 BC (wiki); the Sphinx is commonly believed to have been built by ancient Egyptians of the Old Kingdom during the reign of the pharaoh Khafra (c. 2558-2532 BC) (wiki)
Al Ain: "The Cultural Sites of Al Ain trace the evolution of society in that part of the world from mobile hunter-gatherer groups of the Neolithic period (6th millennium to 4th millennium BC in Al Ain) with remains discovered alongside the eastern ridge of Jebel Hafit, to small- scale farming communities (3rd millennium BC Bronze Age communities)"
Antequera Dolmens Site: The oldest two dolmens (Menga and Viera) date from the 3rd millennium BCE.
Aasivissuit - Nipisat: from 2150 BC to present day
Dilmun Burial Mounds: Built between 2050 and 1750 BCE
Dholavira: A Harappan City: dating from the 3rd to mid-2nd millennium BCE (AB ev)
Ban Chiang: "Reanalysis by radiocarbon dating suggested that a more likely date for the earliest metallurgy at Ban Chiang was c. 2000–1700 BCE. A date of 2100 BCE was obtained from rice phytoliths taken from inside a grave vessel of the lowest grave, which had no metal remains. The youngest grave was about 200 CE. Bronze making began circa 2000 BCE, as evidenced by crucibles and bronze fragments" (wiki)

Built in the 2nd Millennium BC

Paphos: The sanctuary of Aphrodite in Palaipaphos dates to the 12th century BC.
Tchogha Zanbil: ca. 1250 BC
Yin Xu: the last capital of China's Shang Dynasty (1300 BC - 1046 BC)
Chavin: "This site gave its name to the culture of Chavln which developed roughly between 1500 and 300 B.C. (Carbon 14 analyses would indicate a starting date of ca. 1800)." (AB ev)
Rock Carvings in Tanum
Hortobágy: The nomadic group who arrived around 2000 BC at the end of the Bronze Age were the first to leave their imprint on the natural landscape in the form of many burial mounds (kurgans ).
Hattusha: Criterion II: Hattusha exerted dominating influence upon the civilisations of the 2nd and even the 1st millenium B.C. in Anatolia and northern Syria. (AB ev)
Nubian Monuments: The twin temples were originally carved out of the mountainside during the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II in the 13th century BC, as a lasting monument to himself and his queen Nefertari, to commemorate his alleged victory at the Battle of Kadesh, and to intimidate his Nubian neighbors. (wiki)
Biblical Tells: mainly represent the period between 12th and 6th Centuries BC
Syracuse: Necropolis of Pantalica: "Most of the tombs date back to the period from the 13th to the 7th century B.C." (AB ev)
Su Nuraxi di Barumini: "It is generally accepted that the central tower at Barumini dates from the later 2nd millennium BC." (AB ev)
Sulaiman-Too: "a symbiosis of various cultures and traditions for more than three millennia" and "The majority of images belong to the Bronze Age (circa 1500 BC to circa 500 AD)" (AB ev)
Maloti Drakensberg: "Radiocarbon dating of pigments and charcoal from occupation layers indicate that the earliest paintings date to c 3800 BP."
Troy: "struggle for commercial supremacy between Troy and Mycenae that culminated in the siege of Troy in the 13th century BC was immortalized by Homer in The Iliad" (AB ev)
Hallstatt-Dachstein: "systematic salt production was being carried out in the region as early as the Middle Bronze Age (later 2nd millennium BC)."
Ancient Thebes: Luxor ca. 1400 BCE, Karnak (from 1391 BC) (wiki)
Ashur: "the most important role of Ashur was from the 14th to 9th century BCE when it was the first capital of the Assyrian empire" (AB ev)
Mycenae and Tiryns: Main monuments date from ca. 14th and 13th century BC, plus some 17th century BC grave circles
Mount Taishan: Site of religious worship since the Shang Dynasty (between 1766 BC and 1122 BC) (wiki), Confucius visited in 6th century BC, first temples date from 351 BC "an eminent monk named Lang, the first to come to the mountain, set up the Lang and Divine Rock temples" (AB ev)
Rock Islands: Human activity is evidenced in the Rock Islands from 3,100 BP on Ulong Island (AB ev)
Poverty Point: between 3,700 and 3,100 BP (AB ev)
Battir: The village of Battir, which developed on the outskirts of this cultural landscape, and was inhabited by farmers who worked and still work the land, attests to the sustainability of this system and to its continuation for the past 4,000 years (Nom File).
Writing-on-Stone / Áísínai’pi: Most of the dated archaeological remains cover a period from 1800 BCE up to the beginning of the postcontact period (AB ev)
Lopé-Okanda: relationship to the "Middle Holocene Bantu Migrations" (3,500-2,000 BP) which were eased by following the Savannahs rather than the forests

Built in the 10th century BC

Ephesus: temple to Artemis, which cult can be traced back to the early first millennium BCE. Excavated finds indicate that the first Greek colonisers arrived c 1000 BCE (AB ev)

Built in the 9th century BC

Etruscan Necropolises: The necropolis of Cerveteri (Banditaccia) developed from the 9th century BCE.

Built in the 8th century BC

Gebel Barkal: Gebel Barkal consists of 5 sites mainly from the Napatan and Meroitic culture of the 2nd Kushite Kindom between 8C BC until 4C AD, together with some earlier Egyptian remains at Jebel Barkal from their period of rule over Kush, pre-Napatan tombs at El Kurru from 9C BC and some post-Meroitic remains at Zuma through to 6C AD. By 3C BC the royal burial grounds had been transferred to Meroe. GB would best be described as '1st millennium BC'. The chosen 'century' represents the commencement of the Napatan period
Syracuse: Syracuse: "From the ancient Greek period to the Baroque" - founded ca. 734 B.C.
Olympia: "The Olympic Games were celebrated regularly beginning in 776 B.C." - remaining monuments are a little later (f.e. Temple of Zeus (470-457))
Caves of Maresha and Bet Guvrin: "The practice of subterranean excavating as quarries and annexes for dwellings and villages began in the 8th century BCE." (AB ev, about Maresha)
Ancient ferrous metallurgy sites: "Dated to the 8th century BCE, Douroula bears the most ancient testimony to the development of iron production in Burkina Faso" (AB ev)

Built in the 7th century BC

Gochang, Hwasun, and Ganghwa Dolmen: The Chungnim-ri group in Gochang is considered to date from around the 7th century BC. Dolmen construction ceased here in the 3rd century BC. The Hwasun dolmens are a little later, from the 6th-5th centuries BC. There are insufficient data to permit dating of the Ganghwa group, but they are thought to be earlier rather than later.
Cyrene: founded in 630 BC as a settlement of the Greeks, one of its more significant features is the temple of Apollo which was originally constructed as early as 7th century BC (wiki)
Delos: The island contains archaeological remains dating back to 3rd millennium BC. By the time of the Odyssey (c8C BC) it was already 'famed' as the birthplace of Apollo (in 425BC the Athenians decreed that, as such, no-one should be born or die there). Its decline began in 1st C BC and was completed by Rome's preference for Rhodes as a trading centre. Its remains cover a wide period of history - e.g Terrace of the Lions (c600 BC), Stoivadeion (c300 BC), Agora of the Competaliasts (2C BC). The 'chosen' century is based on the statement for Criterion III - "From the 7th century B.C. to the pillage by Athenodoros, the island of Delos was one of the principal Panhellenic sanctuaries"
Babylon: "The key period of Babylon, however, began in 626 BCE, when Nabopolassar rose to power (626–605 BCE) and especially under his successor, Nebuchadnezzar II (604-562 BCE), who created a vast empire, making Babylon a significant capital." (AB ev)
Ancient Kingdom of Saba: Heydays of city Marib and construction Dam / In the 7th century BCE, the political system in the kingdom changed with the transfer of the administrative control to the dynastic kings. Together with this transfer, religious practice changed, and the Moon God Almaqah became the state deity of the Sabaeans (AB ev)

Built in the 6th century BC

Persepolis: Founded in 518 BC
Carthage: Heyday of Phoenico-Punic civilization: in the 6th century Carthage had conquered the territory of the Libyan tribes and the old Phoenician colonies and had control over the North African coast, in 509 BC, a treaty was signed between Carthage and Rome indicating a division of influence and commercial activities.
Persian Garden: Pasargadae complex with its garden (6th century BC) is exemplary in this respect and it was during this period that the main elements of the Persian Garden, namely Chahar Bagh, were laid down. (AB ev)
Archaeological Site of Delphi: Earliest monuments on site date from the 6th century: Treasury of the Athenians, Polygonal Wall
Pythagoreion and Heraion of Samos: Samos was the leading maritime and mercantile power in the 6th century, Heraion dates from that period
Nessebar: Became a Greek colony in the 6th century, a wall from that time can still be seen. Monuments date from several periods though, "multilayered" heritage (unesco website)
Pasargadae: 546
Bisotun: Bisotun Inscription, made in 521 BC
Cilento and Vallo di Diano: 2 key episodes (1): Paestum, Temple of Hera "built around 550 BC by Greek colonists" (wiki)
Ibiza: The Phoenician Punic cemetery Puig de Molins ("At the beginning of the 6th century BC, the ashes of the dead were placed in a natural grotto after cremation) and site Sa Caleta (abandoned around 590 BC) (AB ev)
Tipasa: Criterion (iv): "the contacts between the indigenous civilizations and the Punic and Roman waves of colonization between the 6th century B.C. and the 6th century A.D"
Rome: Antiquity: 508 BC, start of the Roman Republic, centered around the Forum Romanum

Built in the 5th century BC

Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae: built from 420 to 400 BC
Acropolis: Its masterpieces (Parthenon, Propylaea) date from the 5th century
Agrigento: great temples were built during the rule of the tyrant Thero (488-473 BC)
Chongoni Rock Art: earliest archaeological remains
Ancient Merv: The succession of cities, which together once encompassed over 1000 ha, date from the 5th century BCE to the present day. The first city was Erk Kala.
Tauric Chersonese: Chersonese city was founded in the 5th century BCE as a colonial settlement of the Dorian Greeks (Unesco), see also full site name
Vineyard Landscape of Piedmont: Vine pollen has been found in the area dating from the 5th century BC (Nom File).
Zuojiang Huashan Rock Art: Dating from around the 5th century BCE to the 2nd century CE (Rock art, AB ev)
Plain of Jars: The funerary sites are believed to date from before the Iron Age (between about 500 BCE and 500 CE) into historic times (AB ev)

Built in the 4th century BC

Epidaurus: Epidaurus entered its greatest period in the 4th century BC, when the Temple of Apollo Maneates and the great monuments of the Hieron were built. (AB ev)
Archaeological Site of Aigai: Temple and palace, there are earlier tombs
Thracian tomb of Kazanlak: Late 4th century, could also be 3rd (unesco website)
Rio Abiseo National Park: "constitute an outstanding example of pre-Hispanic human occupation at high altitudes in the Andean region from as early as the 4th century BC" (ICOMOS); Gran Pajaten is dated from -900-200 BC and 200 BC-AD 600, but the ruins that can be seen today were constructed in the Inca times (1200-1500 AD)
Butrint: By the 4th century BC it had grown in importance and included a theatre, a sanctuary to Asclepius and an agora. Around 380 BC, the settlement was fortified with a new 870 metres long wall (wiki)
Stari Grad Plain: "land parcel system, dating from the 4th century BC"
Xanthos-Letoon: trilingual inscription dates to 358 B.C.; Nereid Monument "is thought to have been built in the early fourth century BCE" (wiki)
Land of Frankincense: "By 300 BCE the site of Shisr had become part of this network." (formal network for incense) (AB ev) - Khor Rori is later, ca. 1st century BC
Archaeological site of Philippi: founded in 356 BCE
The Persian Qanat: Qasabeh, Khorasan-e Razavi/Gonabad, dates from 3- 4 centuries BCE (AB ev)

Built in the 3rd century BC

Kerkuane: This Phoenician city was probably abandoned during the First Punic War (c. 250 B.C.) and as a result was not rebuilt by the Romans. The remains constitute the only example of a Phoenicio-Punic city to have survived (AB).
Sanchi: Stupa no. 1
Thracian tomb of Sveshtari: dates back to the 3rd century BC (AB ev)
Meroe: The property consists of the royal city of the Kushite kings from the 3rd century BCE (AB)
Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor: "The figures, dating from 3rd century BC, were discovered in 1974 by some local farmers in Lintong District, Xi'an, Shaanxi province, near the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor Qin Shi Huang)." - wiki
Anuradhapura: Dagaba Thuparama & Bodhi tree
Rangiri Dambulla Cave Temple: established in the 3rd century B.C (AB ev)
Mount Qingcheng and Dujiangyan: "Construction of the Dujiangyan irrigation system began in the 3rd century B.C. This system still controls the waters of the Minjiang River and distributes it to the fertile farmland of the Chengdu plains. Mount Qingcheng was the birthplace of Taoism, which is celebrated in a series of ancient temples." - Nomination file
Great Wall: "In 220 B.C., under Qin Shi Huang, sections of earlier fortifications were joined together to form a united defence system against invasions from the north. Construction continued up to the Ming dynasty (1368-1644), when the Great Wall became the world's largest military structure." - Nomination File
Stone Circles of Senegambia
Nisa: "... the mid 3rd century BCE, when impressive buildings were erected by the Parthians" (AB ev)
Djenné: "Djenné-Jéno, the original site of Djenne is considered to be among the oldest urbanized centers in sub-Saharan Africa ...and has been dated to the 3rd century BC". It had developed into a large walled urban complex by 850 AD, but after 1100 AD the population of the town declined and by 1400 the site had been abandoned. (Wiki)
Incense Route of the Negev: "The towns, fortresses, caravanserai and fossilised agricultural landscapes.. reflect the prosperity of the Nabatean spice trade over 500 years from the 3rd century BC, .. and then its subsequent decline in the 2nd century AD with the Roman occupation of Petra. The sites have been preserved due to their almost total abandonment in the 7th century AD" (AB)
Lumbini: The Emperor Ashoka visited the site of Buddha's birth in 249 BC. He erected the Ashoka pillar, and monasteries and stupa's were added.
Tarraco: Tárraco "was seized and fortified by the Roman proconsul Scipio Africanus in 218 BC ... The surviving remains of Tárraco make it possible to study the spread of Roman rule from the 3rd/2nd century BC, when the Roman town was founded, until the early Christian period." Its remains cover the entire Roman period through to 3C AD
Pergamon: The first Hellenistic city of Pergamon was established by the former Macedonian army officer Philetairos from 282 to 263BC (AB ev)
Nalanda: a monastic-cum-scholastic institution dating from the 3rd century BC to the 13th century AD (AB ev)
Aphrodisias: the first temple to Aphrodite dates to the 3rd century BCE (AB ev)
Chankillo Archaeoastronomical Complex: has defined Chankillo´s occupation between 250 and 200 B.C. (AB ev)

Built in the 2nd century BC

Ajanta Caves
Nasca Lines: The third phase, which represents the great majority of the geoglyphs, is the Nazca phase proper (200 BC-AD 500). (AB ev)
Aquileia: For Early Roman city: founded as a Roman colony in 181 BC, and connected to the road network
Hierapolis-Pamukkale: For its Greco-Roman spa qualities: "they founded a thermal station on the site in the late 2nd century" (AB ev), and Romans from 129 B.C.
Pyu Ancient Cities: from around the 2nd century BCE to the 3rd century CE (AB ev)
Silk Roads: "Having witnessed significant stages in the development of human civilization on the Eurasian continent over a period of eighteen centuries between the 2nd century BC and 16th century AD," etc (nom file)

Built in the 1st century BC

Arles: It has some impressive Roman monuments, of which the earliest - the arena, the Roman theatre and the cryptoporticus (subterranean galleries) - date back to the 1st century B.C. (AB)
Dacian Fortresses: built between the 1st centuries B.C. and A.D
Masada: built 37-34 BC
Old City of Jerusalem: the Temple Mount was built in its current structure by Herode in 19 BC
Orange: Theatre built in 35 BC.
Petra: Treasury dated to the 1st Century BC
Takht-i-Bahi: founded in the early 1st Century BC
Koguryo Kingdom: "The Koguryo kingdom starts as a regional power in the year 37BC, when its first capital city, Wunu Mountain City was built. 30 years later the capital moved to Guonei city." - AB Evaluation
Mount Wuyi: "It (Mount Wuyi) contains a series of exceptional archaeological sites, including the Han City established in the 1st century BC and a number of temples and study centres associated with the birth of Neo-Confucianism in the 11th century AD. The archaeological site of the Han city of Chengcun was discovered in 1958, this is a walled city. The circuit of walls survives intact; the layout of the town is in accordance with the principle of urban design characteristic of southern China at this period." - Nomination File
Hatra: The present-day remains date back to between the 1st century BC and the 2nd century AD. (AB ev)
Nemrut Dag: Nemrut Dag, where the most impressive of all the tomb sites is found, that of Antiochos I of Commagene (69-34 BC). (AB ev)
Rock Paintings of the Sierra de San Francisco
Mérida: Emerita was founded by Augustus in 25 BC, Guadiana bridge 25 BC, amphitheatre 8 BC
Lyon: As a "major Roman foundation" (43 BC)

Built in the 1st century

Palmyra: under Roman control in the mid-first century AD and grew in importance from then; The great temple of Ba'al is considered one of the most important religious buildings of the 1st century AD (AB ev)
Pont du Gard: built in the first half of the first Century
Segovia: aqueduct dated to the late 1st Century
Carthage: Roman Carthage, founded by Augustus
Taxila: Sirsukh & apogee
Ancient villages of Northern Syria
Pompei: Frozen in 79 AD
City of Bath: Aquae Sulis, constructed in 60-70
Madā ͐ in Ṣāliḥ: "The most active period was between the first two thirds of the 1st century CE, but the site was worked on by the Nabataeans from the 1st century BCE and probably from even earlier" (AB) 3 of the 4 necropoli have been dated to the 1st century (en wiki)
Baalbek: Settlement at the site goes back to pre-history and, at the time of Alexander the Great, it was already a pilgrimage site. The city reached its apogee after the arrival of the Romans in 64BC and the great period of construction commenced with the decision of Augstus in 27 BC to build the Temple of Jupiter on earlier foundations. This was completed in the time of Nero c 60AD and was followed by the other Roman temples through to 3rd century AD (E.g Temple of Bacchus c 120 AD)
St. Kilda: first occupation
Kondoa: earliest estimates
Tsodilo: (estimates of the earliest paintings)
Las Medulas: second half of the 1st century AD
Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras: "lt is believed that terracing began in the cordilleras some two thousand years ago" (AB). In fact it is not known when the terraces began to be constructed and the issue is closely tied to the variuos theories about immigration patterns to the Island. Elsewhere it is stated that construction goes back 6000 years.
Volubilis: Although it was capital of the Mauritanian Kingdom from 300BC during which it was "laid out on the Punic-Hellenistic model" (AB) Volubilis is inscribed "as an exceptionally well preserved large Roman town" " an aspect which only commenced when Rome annexed the area in 40AD. At this point it .. Rapidly expanded to its maximum extent" (AB) although its Roman walls and monumental centre date to 168-9. In 285 the Romans abandoned the area.
San Agustín: "Around the 1st century AD there were profound cultural changes in the san Agustin area. This was the period of the great flowering of monumental lithic art, the so-called Augustinian Culture" (AB ev)
Alto Douro: "Seeds of Vitis vinifera have recently been found at the 3-4 thousand year old Buraco da Pala Chalcolithic archaeological site near Mirandela. However, the more significant relics of viticulture and winemaking that have been uncovered date to the Roman occupation and particularly to the end of the Western Empire (3rd and 4th centuries AD). At the beginning of the Christian era, the Romans redefined all the land-use and restructured the economic activities in the entire valley of the Douro. From the 1st century onwards, they either introduced or promoted cultivation of vines, olive trees and cereals" (AB)
Teotihuacan: Inhabited between the 1st and 7th centuries. (AB ev); The largest pyramid, the Pyramid of the Sun, was completed by 100 CE (wiki)
Kernavė: OUV: for its pre-Christian history and Hill-Forts: "From the 1st to 4th centuries CE, large settlements were scattered over several kilometres on the banks of Neris and in the Pajauta valley. Some hills were adapted to defence (Aukuro Kalnas, Mindaugo Sostas and Lizdeikos Kalnas Hill-Forts)."
Verona: Roman city gates, theatre and amphitheatre
Tower of Hercules: "Under the name of Farum Brigantium, the Tower was probably erected in the 1st century CE" (AB ev)
Danube Limes : First continuously defined in the Flavian dynasty (69-96 CE) (AB ev)
Lower German Limes: marked the edge of Lower Germany from the 1st to 5th centuries CE (AB ev)

Built in the 2nd century

Frontiers of the Roman Empire: Hadrian's Wall - Construction commenced in AD122 Antonine Wall from AD 142 onwards. The inscribed sections of the German Limes were also 2nd century - this period was the apogee of the territorial expansion of the Roman Empire
Timgad: founded around 100
Villa Adriana (Tivoli): The Imperial residence was built over it in two stages, 118-25 and 125-38. (AB ev)
Dengfeng: The nominated buildings were initially constructed over a span of eighteen centuries between 118 AD and the 20th century. The Tishi, Shaoshi and Qimu Gates have survived since Han times
Sabratha: Absorbed by Rome in 46AD and "enjoyed its greatest prosperity in the 2nd and 3rd centuries. This was the period which saw the construction of grandiose monuments" (AB)
Dougga/Thugga: "Dougga is the best preserved Roman small town in North Africa" - the Roman theatre dates from 168 or 169 CE, and is among the earliest of the major remaining Roman structures that mostly date from the 3rd century
Djémila: "Djémila is an outstanding example of ... (an) architectural ensemble illustrating a significant stage in Roman history of North Africa, from the 2nd to the 6th centuries". (It)is an " ancient Roman colony founded during the reign of Nerva (96 - 98 A.D.)".Around the beginning of the 3rd century, it expanded beyond its ramparts with the creation of the Septimius Severus Temple, the Arch of Caracalla, the market and the civil basilica." (AB)
Bosra: For its 2nd century Roman theatre
Tyre: Roman city: triumphal arch and hippodrome
Roșia Montană: Over 166 years starting in 106 CE, the Romans extracted some 500 tonnes of gold from the site (AB ev)

Built in the 3rd century

Amphitheater of El Jem: built in 238
Gamzigrad-Romuliana: late 3rd century (AB ev)
Roman Walls of Lugo: between 263 and 276
Split: Diocletian's Palace built 293-305
Shushtar: in its present form, it dates from the 3rd century CE (AB ev)
Oaxaca and Monte Alban: The history of Monte Alban is described in 5 phases. Phase I : 500-200BC (It emerges as the "regional capital"). Phase II : 200BC -300AD (The "site begins to assume much of the appearance it presents today"). Phase III : 300AD -750 AD. (Becomes involved "in some way" with Teotihuacan "the last period of major construction at Monte Alban when most of the structures now visible were completed.") Phases IV + V : 750 -1520AD. (The public areas are abandoned but it possibly continues in use as a necropolis. ) See
Saint-Emilion: "With the prosperity of Burdigala (Bordeaux), Valerius Probus used his legions to fell the Cumbris forest in AD 275 BC (sic) and created the first vineyards by grafting new varieties of grape on the Vitis biturica that grew naturally in the region."
Leptis Magna: Septimus Severus renewed the town after he became Roman emperor in 193; in 203 an arch was erected in his honour, and "At the end of his 203 visit Septimius Severus gave orders for a general upgrade to the facilities of Leptis and in particular for the construction of a series of public buildings"
Um er-Rasas: Founded as a Roman camp (kastro). "It contains remains from the Roman, Byzantine and Early Muslim periods (end of 3rd to 9th centuries AD)" (AB ev)
Necropolis of Bet She'arim: Became a favourite burial place after Rabbi Judah died in about 220 CE and was buried here (AB ev)
Sassanid Archaeological Landscape: date back to the earliest and latest moments of the Sassanian Empire, which stretched across the region from 224 to 658 CE (AB ev)

Built in the 4th century

Abu Mena: Archaeologists have dated the original foundation to the late 4th century. By the late 4th century, it was a significant pilgrimage site for Christians who sought healing and other miracles (Wiki)
Aksum: King Ezana's Stele was erected during his reign in c.321-c.360
Göreme NP: first cave dwellings from the time of Basil of Caesarea (330-379)
Istanbul: Period of the Eastern Roman Empire: hippodrome of Constantine (324), aqueduct of Valens (378)
Old City of Jerusalem: Church of the Holy Sepulchre (built 335)
Trier: Porta Nigra, Constantine Basilica and the restored Cirucus Maximus, amphitheatre and thermae date from the time of Constantine the Great (305-337).
Thessalonika: Start of construction of the great Christian monuments, including the palatial complex of Galerius
Villa Romana del Casale: Between 310 and 340 (AB ev)
Mogao Caves: "The first caves were dug out 366 AD as places of Buddhist meditation and worship. The caves contain some of the finest examples of Buddhist art spanning a period of 1,000 years. From the 4th until the 14th century, Buddhist monks at Dunhuang collected scriptures from the west while many pilgrims passing through the area painted murals inside the caves." - wiki
Matobo Hills: earliest paintings
Papahanaumokuakea: first occupation
Qadisha Valley: The Cultural OUV of the site is based upon the continuous use of the area by monastic communities (Monasteries and eremetic caves) since the earliest years of Christianity. Among these in particular were the 'Maronites' who founded monasteries there and, from 5C, faced repeated persecution for their 'heretical' beliefs. From 7C they were effectively isolated until the Crusades in their mountain valley from Byzantine Christians by the spread of Islam and set up their own Patriarch in 687. Of the major monasteries, those of Qannubin and St Anthony of Quzhayya, were traditionally founded in 4C (though possibly in reality somewhat later) whilst those of Our Lady of Hauqqa and St Elisha were founded in 13 and 14C respectively
Lushan National Park: OUV = "associations with Chinese spiritual and cultural life", "The oldest of the cliff inscriptions is in the calligraphy of the great pastoral poet of the Jin Dynasty, Tao Yuan-ming (365-427)" and for the East Grove Temple (AD 386)
Early Christian Necropolis of Pécs: Tombs date from the 4th century
Aquileia: For the Patriarchal Basilican Complex (early 4th century origins)
Hierapolis-Pamukkale: For its Christian monuments: "The Christian monuments of Hierapolis, erected between the 4th and the 6th centuries, constitutes an outstanding example of an Early Christian architectural group" (AB ev, Criterion IV)
Bethlehem: The Church of the Nativity was originally constructed in 399AD (AB ev)
Okinoshima Island: early ritual practices associated with maritime safety, which emerged in the 4th century AD (AB ev)
Mozu-Furuichi Kofungun: The kofun date from the late 4th and early 5th century.

Built in the 5th century

Copán: founded under K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo' (426-c. 437)
Echmiatsin and Zvartnots: Echmiatsin originally built 301-3, in current form dates to 480
Koguryo Tombs: "The site includes 63 tombs from five areas in North Korea, believed to have been constructed between the 5th and 6th centuries." Nomination File
Sigiriya: ruins of 5th century capital, fortress etc.
Yungang Grottoes: "They are an outstanding example of the Chinese stone carvings from the 5th and 6th centuries. All together the site is composed of 252 grottoes with more than 51,000 Buddha statues and statuettes." - wiki
Longmen Grottoes: "Work began on the Longmen Grottoes in 493, when Emperor Xiaowen of the Northern Wei Dynasty moved his capital to Luoyang. Over the next four centuries this work continued; it can be divided into four distinct phases." - Nomination File
Ravenna: Earliest monuments date from the 5th century, including the "Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, built in the second quarter of the 5th century"
Derbent: "The site of the ancient city of Derbent has been crucial for the control of the north-south passage on the west side of the Caspian Sea since the 1st millennium BCE. The defence structures that were built by the Sasanians in the 5th century CE were in continuous use by the succeeding Persian, Arabic, Mongol, and Timurid governments for some 15 centuries." (AB - Crit iii)
Mahabodhi Temple Complex: Criterion i: "The grand 50m high Mahabodhi Temple of the 5th-6th centuries "
Baekje Historic Areas: “The Baekje Historic Areas serial property comprises eight archaeological sites dating from 475-660 CE” - AB Evaluation
Baptism Site "Bethany Beyond the Jordan": The main buildings on Elijah’s Hill date to the 5th and 6th century CE. (AB ev)

Built in the 6th century

Tiwanaku: AB: around 550 became capital of a vast empire
Bamiyan Valley: Following the destruction of the statues in 2001, carbon dating of organic internal structural components found in the rubble has determined that the two Buddhas were built circa AD 600, with narrow dates of between AD 544 to 595 for the 38 meter "Eastern Buddha", and between AD 591 and 644 for the larger "Western Buddha".
Istanbul: Byzantine Empire: Hagia Sophia (532-537)
Saint Catherine Area: having been used for its initial function without interruption since the 6th century
Aflaj irrigation system: The age of the 5 designated falaj is unknown, though "The present network appears to result from several building campaigns, the earliest of which could be around 500 AD" (AB ev)
Longobards in Italy: ruled from the end of 6th century, the remaining monuments originate mostly from the 7th and 8th centuries
Joya de Ceren: Frozen around 590
Takht-e Soleyman: The site became a royal Zoroastrian sanctuary under Khosrow I (531-579) and Khosrow II (591-628), and it was the most important of the three main Zoroastrians sanctuaries. (AB ev)
Elephanta Caves: The age of the caves is debated. The Archaeological Survey of India states "There are seven cave excavations in the Elephanta group and these are datable from circa 6th - 7th centuries A.D." . Wiki places them at "between the 5th and 8th centuries".
Euphrasian Basilica in Porec: present church was built in the mid-6th century
Calakmul: The apogee of Calakmul is considered to have been in the Late Classic Period (542-695 CE). There are a few remaining earlier structures.
Palenque: Principal buildings were built between 500 and 700, when the city was at its peak (AB ev)
Yuso and Suso Monasteries: "In the mid 6th century the holy man Millan settled at a site, now known as the Suso ("Upper" or "Above") Monastery,....... During the lifetime of the saint a small mnonastery was built on the hillside in Visigothic style. This was enlarged in the 7th century...The church was rebuilt in 929.....". Yuso was built in the 16th century" Well which would you choose? Could have a separate one for Yuso as well. Seems to me that the "heart" of the site is the original Suso cave etc of 6th C
Vegaøyan: earliest settlement
Canterbury: St. Martin's Church + Kingdom of Kent's conversion to Christianity in 597. The Cathedral was founded in 602
Butrint: In the early 6th century AD, Buthrotum became the seat of a bishop and new construction included a large baptistry, one of the largest such Paleochristian buildings of its type, and a basilica. (wiki)
Bosra: Cathedral of Bosra was finished in 513; visit by the (later) prophet Muhammad (582)
Tierradentro: Hypogea were built between 500 and 900
Stone Spheres of the Diquís: El Silencio (from 550 on)
Sambor Prei Kuk: the capital city of the first empire and first Khmer State in the late 6th and early 7th centuries CE (AB ev)
Risco Caido: exceptional testimony to an extinct insular culture that seems to have evolved in isolation for more than 1500 years (AB ev)

Built in the 7th century

Hill Forts of Rajasthan: Chittorgarh, where Chitrangad, also of the Maurya dynasty, erected a stronghold in the 7th century (AB ev), rest dates from between 8th and 16th centuries
Ellora Caves: Earliest monuments date from ca. 600 (caves excavated earlier, from 5th century) (AB ev)
Gyeongju: The Gyeongju Historic Areas contain a remarkable concentration of outstanding examples of Korean Buddhist art, in the form of sculptures, reliefs, pagodas, and the remains of temples and palaces from the flowering, in particular between the 7th and 10th centuries, of this form of unique artistic expression. (There are sites in Gyeongju that are signifigantly older than the 7th century, however the vast majority of inscibed properties are during or after the 7th century, corresponding to the introduction of Buddhism)
Mahabalipuram: mostly built during the reign of Narasimhavarman I (630 - 668)
Old City of Jerusalem: Dome of the Rock (built 689-691)
Sana'a: the great mosque was built in Mohammad's lifetime
Xochicalco: founded in the second half of the 7th century
Horyu-ji Area: Founded in the 7th century, destroyed by fire in 670 and rebuilt almost immediately
Bam Cultural Landscape: Its heyday was from the 7th to 11th centuries (AB ev)
Armenian Monastic Ensembles: Records on St. Thaddeus and St. Stepanos (649)
Dazu Rock Carvings: "The Dazu Rock Carvings are a series of Chinese religious sculptures and carvings, dating back as far as the 7th century AD, depicting and influenced by Buddhist, Confucian and Taoist beliefs." - wiki
Potala Palace: "The Potala Palace, winter palace of the Dalai Lama since the 7th century, symbolizes Tibetan Buddhism and its central role in the traditional administration of Tibet. Also founded in the 7th century, the Jokhang Temple Monastery is an exceptional Buddhist religious complex." - Nomination File
Tongariro National Park: Arrival of the Maori
Medina of Sousse: "Although Sousse had Phoenecian, Roman, Vandal and Byzantine manifestations nothing of these remained after its capture and complete destruction by the Arabs. It was rebuilt (albeit with reclaimed Byzantine materials) as a completely new city with its current name in the late 7C. It became ..an important commercial and military port during the Aghlabid period (800-909) and is a typical example of a town dating from the first centuries of Islam" (AB). Only the 'Ribat' (a dual purpose Fort-Monastery) remains from that initial rebuilding period. Other extant structures within the Medina were constructed in the following century e.g The Bu Ftata and Great Mosques.
Grand Canal: the canal was completed for the first time in the 7th century AD (AB ev)
Sansa, Buddhist Mountain Monasteries: Seven temples established in the 7th to 9th centuries have been selected (AB ev)
Al-Ahsa Oasis: Jawatha Mosque ( c. 629 AD) + "Al-Ahsa reached its maximum integration and size during the Islamic period (from 661 to the 10th century CE)." (AB ev)

Built in the 8th century

Aachen Cathedral: Construction started in 792
Abbey and Altenmünster of Lorsch: The Abbey was founded between 760 and 764
Anjar: Construction of the city started in 714
Birka and Hovgarden: The town Birka was founded in the 8th century
Buddhist Vihara at Paharpur: The Paharpur Vihara, known as Somapura Mahavira, was built by the Pala Emperor Dharmapala (AD 770-810).
Cordoba: Mezquita built in 784-987
Damascus: Great Mosque of the Umayyads
Madara Rider: Dated to 710
Pattadakal: Masterpiece Temple of Virupaksha, built c. 740
Quebrada de Humahuaca: Agricultural practice in Coctaca started from 700 AD (nom file)
Quirigua: Blossomed during the reign of Cauac Sky (723-84)
Quseir Amra: Built in the early 8th century by the Umayyad caliph Walid I
Reichenau: Founded in 724
Seokguram Grotto and Bulguksa Temple: Temple of Bulguksa (built in 774), Seokguram Grotto (established in the 8th century)
Tikal National Park: At its height from 700-800, Temple of the Great Jaguar probably built 730 completed by 734
Zabid: Founded earlier but main period of formation
Mount Emei, including Leshan Giant Buddha: "Over the course of the centuries it has accumulated many cultural treasures. The most striking is the Giant Buddha: work began on carving it out of the mountainside in the early 8th century, and was not completed for ninety years." - Nomination File
Huangshan: "The first use of this name "Huangshan" is often attributed to Chinese poet Li Bai (Famous 8th century poet). Huangshan was fairly inaccessible and little-known in ancient times, but its change of name in 747 AD seems to have brought the area more attention; from then on, the area was visited frequently and many temples were built there." - wiki
Palmeral of Elche: It was with the Arab invasion in the 8th century AD that they began to be cultivated (AB ev)
Orkhon Valley: The Valley contains remains straddling many centuries. The Ruins of Khar Balgas date back to the 8th century AD. It was the capital of the Uighur Empire and was built on the site of the capital of the earlier Gokturk Empire - some of whose monuments also remain. 17kms away are the remains of Karakorum, founded by Ghengis Khan from 1220, which was to become the Mongol capital. It is overlooked by the nearby Erdene Zuu monastery which was built in 1585. (from Wiki and Nom file)
Ancient Nara: Capital of Japan from 710-784. Its buildings "illustrate the high cultural and artistic levels of the wooden architecture of 8th century Japan" (AB)
Mount Wutai: holds some of the oldest existent wooden buildings in China that have survived since the era of the Tang Dynasty: the main hall of Nanchan Monastery and the East Hall of Fuguang Monastery, built in 782 and 857
Uxmal: Although settlement dates back to the Pre-classic Maya period (c800BC) the main development "was in the Late Classic Period (AD 650-1000).. Radiocarbon dating suggest(s)that the main structures in the complex were built between AD 700 and 1000" (AB). Uxmal was abandoned C1200AD.
Ancient Kyoto: "Criterion ii Kyoto was the main centre for the evolution of religious and secular architecture and of garden design between the 8th and 17th centuries," - Kyoto was founded in 794 as a capital and evolved ever since; early temples remain
Hani Rice Terraces: tradition has existed during the past 1300 years (AB ev), so early 700s
Khangchendzonga National Park: The sacred Buddhist importance of the place begins in the 8th century with Guru Rinpoche’s initiation of the Buddhist sanctity of the region (AB ev)
Hedeby and Danevirke: The first stage of monumental construction at the Dannewirke dates to 700 (Phase III)

Built in the 9th century

Abbey of St Gall: Apogee 816-837
Borobudur: Ca. 800
Ohrid Region: Earlier origins, but Church of Saint Panteleimon and birth of Slavic literacy and culture date from the time of St. Clement (886-916)
Cahokia Mounds: was occupied primarily during the Mississippian period (800-1350) (AB ev), mound building at this location began with the Emergent Mississippian cultural period, about the 9th century CE (wiki)
Asturian Monuments
Benedictine Convent of St. John: murals painted c. A.D. 800 + noted from the beginning of the 9th century as being an establishment of Benedictines
West Lake: The main artificial elements of the lake, two causeways and three islands, were created from repeated dredgings between the 9th and 12th centuries. (AB ev)
Angkor: First capital from 802, earliest remaining temples date from ca. 880. Lots of later additions though, Angkor Wat for example dates from the 12th century.
El Tajin: one phase of occupation lasting from 800 to 1200 (AB ev)
Kairouan: The Great Mosque was rebuilt in the 9th century
Samarra: Samarra was laid out as a new city in 836 by the Abassid Caliph al-Mu'tasim who wished to create a new court residence and army base outside Baghdad. He died in 847 with the city's mosques and palaces only partly completed but his successor continued with new plans. By 892 a subsequent Caliph returned the capital to Baghdad an, although habitation continued on the site much of the monumental area was abandoned.
Kii Mountain Range: A number of the individual Buddhist and Shinto shrines have histories dating back to the 5C. E.g Seiganto-ji (Legend suggests this temple was founded in the early 5C) and Yoshino Mikumari-jinja (a Shinto shrine documented as early as 698) ... The Shinto religion which nurtures the spirit of nature worship has been practised in Japan since ancient times. In the 6th century Buddhism was introduced into Japan and adopted...in the second half of the 7th C. It did not supplant Shintoism. Instead .. a unique form of Shinto-Buddhism evolved, based on the belief that Japanese traditional gods are the incarnations of Buddhist deities. The Kii Mountains became the centre for this religious movement in the 9/10Cs (AB)
Medina of Fez: "The Medina of Fez preserves, in an ancient part comprising numerous monumental buildings, the memory of the capital founded by the Idrisid dynasty between 789 and 808. It is home to the oldest university in the world (Al-Karaouine - 859)."
Costiera Amalfitana: Independent Republic from 839 on, and became a maritime trading power from the 9th century. Amalfi Cathedral dates from the 9th century too, though it and other major monuments have been altered and added in the course of the 10th-13th centuries
Masjed-e Jâme': Different theories exist - the Abbasid mosque dates from 841 (built on top of earlier structures)
Bali Subak system: Around the 9th century the subak system was introduced (AB ev)
Wachau Cultural Landscape: "The clearing of the natural forest by local peoples began in the Neolithic period, although radical changes in the landscape did not take place until around 800, when the Bavarian and Salzburg monasteries began to cultivate the slopes of the Wachau, creating the present-day landscape pattern of vine terraces." (Official description)
Corvey: between 822 and 885

Built in the 10th century

Chichen-Itza: Gained importance under the Toltecs from late 10th century
Haghpat and Sanahin: Hagpat 966-991, some later extensions; Sanahin main church built 10th century
Historic Cairo: Al Azhar mosque and university built in 970-972
Khajuraho Group of Monuments: Chandella rulers, Apogee between 950 and 1050
My Son: In the later 10th century, most of the finest surviving architectural monuments were built there.
Prambanan: Built during the first half of the 10th century (AB ev).
Tiya: earliest stelae date to the 10th Century
Jelling: illustrate the Christianization of the Danish people towards the middle of the 10th century.
Upper Middle Rhine Valley: Some 40 hill top castles and fortresses erected over a period of around 1,000 years ... & Vines had been cultivated on the lower slopes since Roman times, and this expanded greatly from the 10th century onwards. (AB ev) Original Mouse Tower in Bingen dates from 968.
Thingvellir: Althing, an open-air assembly representing the whole of Iceland, was established here in 930
Sceilg Mhichíl: "It was dedicated to St Michael somewhere between 950 and 1050. lt was customary to build a new church to celebrate a dedication, and this date fits in weil with the architectural style of the oldest part of the existing church, known as St Michael's Church." (AB ev)
Pannonhalma: for "early date of its foundation": It was founded as the first Hungarian Benedictine monastery in 996 by Prince Géza (wiki)
Medina of Tunis: "Criterion (iii): As an important city and the capital of different dynasties (from the Banu Khurassan, to the Husseinits), the Medina of Tunis bears outstanding witness to the civilizations of Ifriqiya (essentially from the 10th century)." (OUV statement 2010)
Kaesong: ruling base of the Koryo dynasty (918-1392)
Bolgar: The historical and archaeological complex of Bolgar is a symbolic reminder of the acceptance of Islam by the Volga-Bolgars in 922 AD (Nom File).
Ani: Between 961 and 1045, it was the capital of the Bagratid Armenian kingdom ... Ani expanded rapidly during the reign of King Smbat II (977–89). (wiki)
Kujataa: From the 10th century AD, Norse colonists from Iceland led by Eiríkr rauði (Erik the Red) settled in this area for a period of approximately 500 years (AB ev)
Medina Azahara: Medina Azahara was a new city built in open country from 940 CE (AB ev)
Quanzhou: during the Song and Yuan periods (10th - 14th centuries AD) (AB ev)

Built in the 11th century

Kunya-Urgench: Kutlug-Timur minaret dates from the 11th century
Preah Vihear Temple: In the first half, during the King Suryavarman I (1002-50)
Avila: walls built 1090-1099
Chaco Culture: The zenith of this culture was from 1020 to 1100
Chola Temples: Brihideswara temple in Thanjavur: 1003-1010
Durham Castle and Cathedral: The archetypal Norman Cathedral even though it took centuries to reach its current from, therefore 11th Century
Great Zimbabwe Ruins: founded in the 11th Century
Hildesheim Cathedral and Church: the cathedral was constructed 1010-1020
L'Anse aux Meadows: The settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows has been dated to approximately 1000 years ago, an assessment that agrees with the relative dating of artifact and structure types. This is about the same time as the establishment of Vinland (1003)
M'Zab Valley: the standing sites originate from the early 11th Century
Medina of Marrakesh: Founded in 1070-72 by the Almoravids
Mont-Saint-Michel: William de Volpiano designed the Abbey in the early 11th Century.
Saint-Savin sur Gartempe: current abbey was built 1040-1090
Santiago de Compostela: the cathedral was constructed 1075-1122
Speyer Cathedral: constructed 1024-1061
Thang Long: Origins from 1010, but most of the current structures are from the 19th century
Tower of London: Straddles many eras but the White tower is its heart and is 11th century
Island of Patmos: 1088
Saloum Delta: "The creation of tumuli on certain large shell mounds ... started in the 8th century AD and developed through to the 16th century. Various populations occupied the islands in the Saloum Delta one after another: Fulani, Tukulor and Serer in particular. The latter arrived in the 11th century from modern northern Senegal fleeing the Almoravid conquest. They erected large tumuli and they are still the dominant ethnic group in Saloum."
Vat Phou: The earliest remains that still can be seen are from the 11th century - major rebuilding was done in the 11th-12th centuries by the rulers of Angkor
Mount Athos: In 1054, the sacred mountain of Athos, a holy place in the Christian world, became the principal spiritual home of the Orthodox church. (AB ev)
Daphni, Hosios Loukas and Nea Moni of Chios: Hosios Loukas (1011 or 1042), Nea Moni (1045)
Mtskheta: Cathedral and Samtavro date from the 11th century, there are also remains of 7th century churches
Lavaux, Vineyard Terraces: The present vine terraces date from the 11th century and where developed by Benedictine and Cistercian Monasteries (AB ev)
Rammelsberg and Goslar: first documentary mention of Rammelsberg is from the beginning of the 11th century. The rich deposits of silver ore there were one of the main reasons for siting an Imperial residence at the foot of the Rammelsberg mountain by the Emperor Henry II; he held his first Imperial Assembly there in 1009 (AB ev)
Bamberg: exerted a strong influence on urban form and evolution in the lands of central Europe from the 11th century onwards (AB ev)
Wartburg Castle: The first steps in its construction were taken in 1067, following the troubles caused by the Investiture Contest, troubles which encouraged the birth of feudalism. The castle is mentioned for the first time in 1080 as a strategic base (AB ev)
Piazza del Duomo (Pisa): In the Campo dei Miraculi "the individual, basic structures ..... church, cathedral, baptistry, campanile, cemetery), were erected between the 11th and 14th centuries" (AB) "The power of Pisa as a mighty maritime nation began to grow and reached its apex in the 11th century.... Construction (of the Duomo) was begun in 1064 .... and set the model for the distinctive Pisan Romanesque style of architecture." (Wiki)
Route of Santiago de Compostela: For Santiago's Cathedral and Puente la Reina
Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France: From the 11th-13th centuries 'staging post' churches developed along the pilgrimage route, and in particular in France.
Ruins of Loropéni : "The recent inter-disciplinary project has allowed a reassessment of the history of Loropéni. This has pushed much further back the date of its construction from around the 17th century to at least the 11th century AD" (AB)
Novgorod: "veritable "conservatory" of Russian architecture of the Middle Ages and later periods (llth-19th centuries)" (AB ev); St. Sophia Cathedral is from 1045-1050
Kyiv: Construction of the Cathedral started in ca. 1037, "It is one of the major edifices of Eastern Christianity in the 11th century" and "the stylistic features of its decoration were spread throughout Kievan Russia in the 11th century by the icon painters working in Kiev." (AB ev)
Venice and its Lagoon: St. Mark's: status as a symbol of Venetian wealth and power, from the 11th century (wiki)
Bassari Country: first documented population movement phenomenon dates back to the 11th - 13th centuries (AB ev)
Gonbad-e Qâbus: 1006
Al Qal'a of Beni Hammad: founded 1007
Fujisan: by the 11th century, the form of Fujisan came to inspire literature and art - notably on painted paper screens (AB ev)
Rani-ki-Vav: built as a memorial in the 11th century CE (Nom File)
Diyarbakir Fortress and Hevsel Gardens: Oldest towers and inscriptions in the city walls date from 1085-1093
Lake District: The Normans took control over the region in 1092 and the land was subdivided amongst members of the aristocracy, and large tracts of land were also given to monasteries, and the wool trade and the mining industry developed from this period onwards. .... The current settlement pattern began to develop in this period. (AB ev)
Yazd: The oldest dated inscription surviving in Yazd today is on the Davazdah-Imam monument (1008-1051)
Qalhat: flourished in the 11th to 15th centuries CE (AB ev), though its origins are much earlier ("The earliest historic evidence in the ancient city of Qalhat is an Iron Age tomb dating to around 500 BC")
Bagan: The historical period of greatest relevance in this nomination is the Bagan period (11th – 13th centuries) (AB ev)

Built in the 12th century

Bahla Fort: Major part of the construction dates from the Banu Nabhan (middle 12th century - end 15th) (AB)
Bourges Cathedral: Construction on Bourges Cathedral began on in 1195, the same time as Chartres Cathedral
Chartres Cathedral: mostly constructed between 1193 and 1250
Cistercian Abbey of Fontenay: founded 1118
Convent of Christ in Tomar: built around 1160
Crac des Chevaliers: The Crac des Chevaliers was built by the Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem from 1142 to 1271
Lalibela: built during the reign of Gebre Mesqel Lalibela 1181-1221
Maulbronn Monastery: Monastery started by Cistercians in 1147, church dates from 1178 (AB ev)
Mesa Verde: Start of the cliff dwellings ("late 1190s")
Minaret of Jam: An inscription gives the date of construction as 1174 (AB)
Modena: 12th-century cathedral
Notre-Dame Cathedral in Tournai: The building of the Cathedral of Tournai lasted from 1146 until 1325
Paquimé: Earliest adobe structures date from the 12th century: "It developed slowly until the mid 12th century, when it underwent a dramatic expansion and cultural shift. The pit dwellings were replaced by more elaborate above-ground adobe structures on a complex layout." (AB ev)
Polonnaruva: built during the reign of Parakrama Bahu I 1153-1186
Provins: Fairs were held from 1120
Urnes Stave Church: rebuilt towards the mid-12th century (AB)
Vézelay: the current abbey dates from 1104
Caceres: seized by the Arabs and made into a fortified city
Painted Churches in the Troödos Region: Among the most significant cycles is that of Panagia Phorbiotissa of Nikitari, which was traced back to 1105-06 thanks to a written dedication, and that of Panagia tou Arakou in Lagoudera, which was executed during the last six months of 1192 (Unesco).
Old City of Berne: founded in 1191
Studenica Monastery: Built in 1183, though the earliest murals date from the 13th century (AB ev))
Monastery of Alcobaça: The building of the monastery began in 1178
Guimarães: The early history of Guimaraes is closely associated with the establishment of Portuguese national identity and the Portuguese language in the 12th century
Roskilde Cathedral: In the mid-12th century brickmaking was introduced into Denmark by craftsmen from Lombardy, and Bishop Absalom decided around 1170 to rebuild his cathedral in this new material
Causses and Cévennes: The fundamental changes to the landscape that can still be perceived today took place between the 12th and 14th centuries when several monastic orders, including Benedictines, Hospitaliers and Knights Templars gained control of extensive lands (AB ev)
Kotor: OUV for its medieval monuments, cathedral dates from 1166, from 1186 to 1371 it was a free city of medieval Serbia
Gelati Monastery: Monastery dates from 1106
Upper Svaneti: Cultural flowering, including its architecture (AB ev)
Regensburg: St. Emmeram´s Monastery: church rebuilt in 1166 & Benedictine Monastery of St Jacob´s .. Its church, dating from the 12th century, is one of the most important High Romanesque buildings in southern Germany. (AB ev) & The Goldene Turm (12th century)
Ancient ksours: The trans-Saharan caravan system began in the 11th C and, although all these oasis towns towns had earlier incarnations, their significance as in the OUV first occurred at the height of Almoravid power in early 12th C. E.g AB eval - Ouadane founded 1141 and Chinguetti 12th C. Their relative wealth however varied according to later shifts in trade routes (E.g Oualata benefitted from the invasion of Timbuctou by Touraegs in 1446). In general however their prosperity continued through the 14th -18th centuries
White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal: Vladimir, founded in 1108; The Cathedral of the Assumption (1158); style that came to characterize above all else the 12th century architecture of Vladimir (AB ev)
Cuenca: "Alfonso VIII of castille captured the town in 1177 and Cuenca entered a new phase of its history as a "Royal town" and an episcopal see. The Christian town was built over the Moorish one" (AB ev)
Ghadames: The settlement at Ghadames goes back at least 5000 years.The first historical information is from 19 BCE when the Romans named it Cydamus. It owed its later significance to its location on one of the major routes of trans-Saharan trade from the Niger area which grew in size based on use of the camel from c300ad and the Islamisation of both Ghadames and on into W Africa during the 7th/8th centuries. This trade continued through to the 19th century. The town's original mosque is said to have been dated from 666AD. The architecture and layout of Ghadames will have developed organically over that period. The Libyan People's Bureau places the age of the current town at 800 years.
Studley Royal Park: Fountains Abbey - Founded 1132 "its construction lasted from 12th to 16th century"
Poblet Monastery: Criterion I: Poblet is a unique artistic achievement and one of the most perfect expressions of Cistercian style in the 12th, 13th and 14th centuries. (AB ev)
Gusuku of Ryukyu: Katsuren Castle, built in the 12th-13th centuries, is the earliest among this group of castles.
Portovenere, Cinque Terre, and the Islands: The cultivation terraces that typify much of the Cinque Terre landscape were mainly built in the 12th century (AB ev)
Aleppo: "Aleppo is an outstanding example of an Ayyubid 12th century city"
Rapa Nui: the moai, for which Easter Island is world-famous, were carved from 1100-1680 CE (wiki), while estimated dates of initial settlement of Easter Island range from 300 to 1200 CE
Walled City of Baku: "The Inner City (Icheri Sheher) has preserved much of its 12th-century defensive walls. The 12th-century Maiden Tower (Giz Galasy..." (AB ev)
Paris, Banks of the Seine: Notre Dame and the mediaeval aspects of Ile de la Cite
Tokaji Wine Region: "The most characteristic structures in Tokaj are the wine cellars: that of King Kalman in Tarcal is known to have been in existence as early as 1110" and "Vineyards had been established in Tokaj from at least as early as the 12th century" (AB ev)
Trebic: OUV lies in the cultural coexistence between Christians and Jews over many centuries: "A Benedictine Monastery was founded in a strategic position at the crossing of Jihlava River, in 1101. Its existence stimulated the establishment of a market, which brought traders and amongst them also Jews."
Vall de Boi: "The Vall de Boi..bears unique witness to an indigenous cultural tradition which has survived since the 11th century.. The churches...were consecrated during the 11th and 12th centuries. The exceptional number of Romanesque churches.....is attributed to the fact that large quantities of silver came into the region, especially in the first decades of the 12th century. The group of...churches constitute a unique example of the cultural tradition which flourished in 12th century Catalonia (AB) - it could be 11C but the majority of the churches seem to be 12C and that was the period of "flourishing" rather than "commencing"
Old City of Acre: Crusader period: "the city gained international significance from 1104 to 1291 as the capital of the Crusader kingdom of Jerusalem "
Tyre: Crusader city: castle walls and cathedral; "was captured by the Crusaders in 1124, becoming one of the most important cities of the Kingdom of Jerusalem" (wiki)
Arab-Norman Palermo: The chapel was founded by Roger II immediately after his crowning in 1130. In 1131 he also founded Cefalù Cathedral, intended by him to be his own dynastic mausoleum. Civil projects from this era included the seven-arched Admiral’s Bridge, built about 1132 (AB ev)
Great Burkhan Khaldun Mountain: At the end of the 12th century Chinggis Khan formally established worship of the Burkhan Khaldun Mountain, along with other sacred mountains in his empire - AB ev
Stećci : ... were created in the period from the second half of the 12th century to the 16th century (AB ev)
Mining Cultural Landscape Erzgebirge: shaped by 800 years of almost continuous polymetallic mining, from the 12th to 20th centuries (AB ev)
ShUM Sites: The oldest remaining buildings (the mikveh in Speyer (1128) and Worms synagogue) date from the 12th century (AB ev)

Built in the 13th century

Amiens Cathedral: Work was started in 1220
Boyana Church: The church owes its world fame mainly to its frescoes from 1259. They form a second layer over the paintings from earlier centuries and represent one of the most complete and well-preserved monuments of Eastern European mediaeval art.
Burgos Cathedral: The first phase of construction took place between 1221 and 1293.
Divrigi: 1299
Monastery of Geghard: Main church built 1215 , first rock cut church by 1250
Mystras: Mystras came into existence in 1248-49 (AB)
Qutb Minar: The Qutb Minar dates from 1202
Rock-hewn Churches of Ivanovo: Convent was built between 1218 and 1235; between 1331 and 1371 it acquired the splendid frescoes
Spissky Hrad and Levoca: Castle (started 1249) & Levoca originate from the 13th century
Sun Temple, Konarak: Built 1236-1264
Westminster: Westminster abbey
Gwynedd Castles: late 13th
Stari Ras and Sopocani: Monastery of Sopocani was built in 1260
Assisi: foundation of the order
Serra de Tramuntana: feudal Christian conquest of 1229 lead to the development of the characteristic large estates
Bellinzone: Castelgrande. There are earlier remains.
Lübeck: capital and Queen City of the Hanseatic League from 1230 to 1535 & Burgkloster (1227)
Cologne Cathedral: began in 1248
Stralsund and Wismar: Wismar and Stralsund, leading centres of the Wendish section of the Hanseatic League from the 13th to 15th centuries (AB ev)
Flemish Béguinages: emergence of the Béguine movement around 1200 (AB ev)
Belfries: vital aspect of civic architecture in Europe since the 13th century (AB ev)
Tabriz Bazaar: The most prosperous time of Tabriz and its bazaar was in 13th century when the town became the capital city of the Safavid kingdom. (wiki)
Torun: Granted town charter in 1233, Church tower (1274), member of Hanseatic League (1264), fortifications of old town (1250)
Old Town of Lijiang: "It was designated as a town around the beginning the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368). From 1253 on, the Naxi people of Lijiang developed a unique social system, customs and culture of their own under the rule of a hereditary succession of chieftains of the Mu clan." - chinadaily.com.cn
Visby: "During the 13th centurv Visby changed from a simple Gotland village to an impressive international town, enclosed by a strong defensive wall, and increasingly divorced from its rural hinterland." (AB ev)
Trogir: OUV: medieval town on ancient remains; Between the l3th and l5th centuries much new building took place, this period seeing the construction of the Cathedral and the Camerlengo fortress, a radical remodelling of the main square, and two campaigns of reconstruction and strengthening of the fortifications. (AB ev)
Castel del Monte: finished in 1240
Itsukushima Shrine: The reconstructed main shrine buildings were destroyed by fire in 1207 in the Kamakwa Period (1185-1332) and reconstructed eight years later, only to be burnt down once again in 1223. This time the reconstruction took longer, not being completed until 1241; the major surviving shrine buildings date from this reconstruction (AB ev)
Albi: The urban and monumental ensemble of the episcopal city of Albi provides a complete and well preserved example of this type of urban settlement in 13th-19th century Europe. Following the Albigensian Crusade against the Cathar heretics (13th century) it became a powerful episcopal city. Cathedral dates from late 13th century (AB ev)
Mudejar Architecture of Aragon: Teruel was founded in 1176 and was the site of the first flowering of Aragonese Mudejar Architecture with the completion of the Romanesque Cathedral of Sta Maria in 1257. The other buildings added to the inscribed site demonstrate the development of the style through to the 16th Century
Madriu-Perafita-Claror Valley: the origin of the communal land ownership system
Vienna: the basic street layout, early parts of Hofburg, much of St Stephens and Michaelerkirche
Hebron/Al-Khalil Old Town: During the Mamluk Period, (1250-1517) the town became a centre for pilgrims and scholars and with economic prosperity, its major neighbourhoods took shape (AB ev)
Cesky Krumlov: Although the castle contains a famed Baroque theatre the site's OUV derives primarily from its 13C castle and the mediaeval settlements which grew up below and opposite it.
Reims: Of the 3 inscribed buildings,the Cathedral, built on the site of an earlier one destroyed by fire in 1210 and finally roofed in 1299, is the most significant "jewel" as stated in Crit I .... "By virtue of the outstanding handling of new architectural techniques in the 13th century and the harmonious marriage of architecture and sculpted decoration, Notre Dame cathedral at Reims is a masterpiece of Gothic art." "The monastic buildings date from the 12th-13th centuries, but were extensively remodelled during the 17C"
Berat and Gjirokastra: Berat: "The town in particular has Christian and Muslim monuments close to each other, which were constructed or restored between the 13th and 18th centuries." (AB ev)
Siena: The cathedral was originally designed and completed between 1215 and 1263 on the site of an earlier structure.
Medina of Fez: Under the Merinids (13th to 15th centuries), a new town (Fez Jedid) was founded (in 1276) to the west of the ancient one (Fez El-Bali). It contains the royal palace, the army headquarters, fortifications and residential areas. At that time, the two entities of the Medina of Fez evolve in symbiosis forming one of the largest Islamic metropolis's representing a great variety of architectural forms and urban landscapes. (AB)
L'viv: "It gradually developed by the 13th century into an organized and well fortified town", and the oldest remaining church (Church of St Mykolai) is also 13th century. Many of the other structures were reconstructed, or rebuilt in a new style between the 16th and 19th centuries
San Marino and Mount Titano: Criterion iii: "uninterrupted continuity as the capital of an independent republic since the 13th century"
Samarkand: "The historic town of Samarkand illustrates in its art, architecture, and urban structure the most important stages of Central Asian cultural and political history from the 13th century to the present day". Registan Square was identified as the centre of the new city after the destruction of Afrosiab in 1220. Its heyday came with the Timurids in the 14th and 15th century.
Sukhothai: capital of the Sukhothai kingdom in the 13th and 14th centuries (wiki)
Tallinn: "The origins of Tallinn date back to the 13th century, when a castle was built there by the crusading knights of the Teutonic Order... (A fort and trading post existed in 10/11C and the settlement). ..was occupied in 1219 by troops of Waldemar II of Denmark, who strengthened the fortifications on Toompea and built the first church... In 1230 the order invited 200 German merchants from Gotland to Tallinn, where they settled around a new church dedicated to St Nicholas, alongside the existing Estonian, Scandinavian and Russian trading posts. In 1248 Tallinn adopted the Lübeck statute, becoming a full member of the Hanseatic League in 1285." (AB)
Sighisoara: "Criterion (iii): Sighisoara is an outstanding testimony to the culture of the Transylvanian Saxons, a culture that is coming to a close after 850 years... In the 13th century, German craftsmen and merchants, known as Saxons, were ordered by the Hungarian sovereigns to colonize Transylvania and protect the border of the Carpathians against the steppe peoples. They settled on a hill, called the City Hill" (AB)
Kremlin and Red Square: "From the 13th century to the founding of St. Petersburg, the Kremlin was directly and tangibly associated with every major event in Russian history." The first (wooden) version of the Kremlin at the same location already dates from 1156
San Gimignano: For its tower houses and Piazza del Duomo and Piazza della Cisterna
Seville: "Criterion (iii): The Cathedral - the largest Gothic temple in Europe - and the Alcázar of Seville bear exceptional testimony to the civilization of the Alhomads and to that of Christian Andalusia dating from the re-conquest of 1248 to the 16th century"
Kraków: For its urban plan of 1257
Villages with Fortified Churches: concept of church fortifications by Saxon settlers dates from the second half of the 13th century
Toledo: Cathedral/El Transito/Santiago del Arrabal
Lamu Old Town: "continuously been inhabited for over 700 years", "From the 13th to the 15th century there were over a hundred city states along the east coast, but most of these have either fallen into ruins or have been transformed into modern towns. In Kenya, Mombasa, Malindi, Witu, Faza, and Lamu continue to exist;" (AB ev)
Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Songo Mnara: By the 13th century, under the rule of the Mahdali family, Kilwa had become the most powerful city on the East African coast. And: "The Great Mosque of Kilwa Kisiwani is the oldest standing mosque on the East African coast and, with its sixteen domed and vaulted bays, has a unique plan. Its true great dome dating from the 13th (century)" (AB ev)
Site of Xanadu: commissioned in 1256
Tusi Sites: system of administrative government in the mountainous region of south-west China from the 13th-20th centuries (AB ev)
Nan Madol: Saudeleur Dynasty (ca. 1200-1600 AD)
Mbanza Kongo: Believed to have been founded in the 13th century (AB ev)
Naumburg Cathedral: Cathedral is of 1028 and onwards, but works of the Naumburg Master date from the 13th century
Rudreshwara (Ramappa) Temple: started its construction in 1213 CE (AB ev)
The Porticoes of Bologna: in Bologna the porticoes were regularized and, through the Municipal Statutes of 1288, made obligatory (AB ev)

Built in the 14th century

Jongmyo Shrine: 1394 originally, rebuilt in 1601, but its traditions and tablets have survived from the earlier date
El Fuerte de Samaipata: then made provincial capital by the Inca
Avignon: 14th century Papacy, Place and Palais date from this period
Florence: Ponte Vecchio (1345), De Medici seat of power (gathered prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the late 14th century)
Granada: Although Alhambra was built over several centuries it is best known for its 14th century Moorish style. Generalife was built during the reign of Muhammad III (1302-1309) and redecorated shortly after by Abu I-Walid Isma'il (1313-1324).
Hahoe and Yangdong: Hahoe and Yangdong in their landscape settings are seen as the two most representative historic, clan villages in Korea. They were founded in the 14th-15th century and subsequently expanded to their present size and composition in the late 18th and 19th centuries
Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi: commissioned in 1389
Medieval Monuments in Kosovo: Decani Monastery and its main murals (AB ev: the 14th-century Decani represents one of the most exquisite examples of the so-called 'Palaeologan Renaissance' in the medieval Orthodox world.)
Monastery of Batalha: From 1386
Taos Pueblo: Taos is thought to have appeared before 1400. (AB ev)
Val d'Orcia: Landscape was made in the 14th century (AB)
Makli, Thatta: Start of Golden Age
Citadel of the Ho Dynasty: flowering of neo-Confucianism in late 14th century
Rhodes: From 1309 on, the Knights Hospitaller rebuilt the city into a model of the European medieval ideal.
Meteora: Earliest monasteries, including the Great Meteoron
Rila Monastery: Origins from 10th century (burned down), rebuilt in the 14th century from which the oldest current remains are Tower of Hrelyu (1334-1335) and a small church just next to it (1343)
Quedlinburg: The two towns were merged in 1330 and were surrounded by a common city wall. (AB ev)
Bryggen: 1350 Hanseatic League, bears the traces of social organization of space going back to the 14th century (AB ev)
Brugge: The Gothic town hall of 1376 remains the oldest in the Low Countries. From 1384 to 1500 Brugge enjoyed its Golden Age under the Dukes of Burgundy. (AB ev)
Soltaniyeh: Dome was constructed in 1302-12
Ayutthaya: Founded in 1350 it was made the capital of the Thai kingdom until it was destroyed by Burmese armies in 1767. "by the year 1600 CE (it)had a population of about 300,000, with the population perhaps reaching 1,000,000 around 1700 CE," (Wiki). It contains buildings from much of this period but the Fortress and 4 significant Wats date from the 14th century (Including 1 which just predates the founding. For dates of these and other buildings see
Wudang Mountains: There are a few structures from the Tang dynasty, however, the site as a organized complex developed in the Ming dynasty. "Situated in the scenic valleys and on the slopes of the Wudang mountains in Hubei Province, the site, which was built as an organized complex during the Ming dynasty (14th-17th centuries), contains Taoist buildings from as early as the 7th century." - Nomination File
Ping Yao: "Ping Yao is an exceptionally well-preserved example of a traditional Han Chinese city, founded in the 14th century." - Nomination File
Shakhrisyabz: In the mid-14th century, a great empire was built up by Timur, who lavished constant attention on the town of his birth. Until his death in 1405, he ordered the construction of encircling walls, the grandiose Ak-Sarai palace, mosques, baths, and caravanserais (AB ev)
Oporto: The rich and varied civil architecture of the historic centre express the cultural values of succeeding periods- Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, Neo-Ciassical, and modern. The part of the modern town proposed for inscription on the World Heritage List is that enclosed within the enceinte of the 14th century Fernandine walls, together with some smaller areas that retain their medieval characteristics.
Bardejov Town: "In the mid 14th century Ludovit I ordered the citizens to fortify the town. The entire defensive circuit was completed" (AB ev), Church of St. Egidius (15th) and Town Hall (early 16th) are some of the later additions.
Malbork Castle: Constructed between 1309 and 1406, also headquartes of the Teutonic Knights between 1309 and 1466
Kutna Hora: "The town began in 1142 with the settlement of the first Cistercian Monastery in Bohemia... By 1260 German miners began to mine for silver ... From the 13th to 16th centuries the city competed with Prague economically, culturally and politically. (Wiki). "The early decades of the 14th centurv saw Kutna Hora being transformed from a chaotic mining settlement into a proper town, and by the middle of the centurv the definitive system of defences was complete, with its four main gates, moat, and bastions. The present street pattern was evolved from the haphazard communications of the mining boom and what must have been largely wooden houses were replaced by substantial stone houses. Public buildings began to appear, such as the first town hall and a number of churches. Work on the monumental church of St Barbara began in the 1380s, In the 14th century it became a royal city endowed with monuments that symbolized its prosperity. .. The most impressive feature of Sedlec cathedral is its blend of original architectural conceptions from the late 14th to the early 16th centuries. The relative lack of Renaissance buildings in the town graphically illustrates the sudden decline in its fortunes in the early 1540s, when the silver mines became exhausted" (AB)
Safranbolu: The surviving Old Mosque, Old Bath and Süleyman Pasha Medrese were built in 1322. The caravan trade reached its apogee in the 17th century and the city also holds many constructions from that period.
Santa Maria de Guadalupe: Main church and Mudejar cloister
Telc: As a planned settlement of the Later Middle Ages: "The town itself was probably founded in the mid 14th century". (AB ev). A fire in 1386 lead to reconstruction of the buildings in stone.
Verona: For the Scaliger period: "Castelvecchio (1354-57) is the fortified residence of the Scaliger family" (AB ev)
San Gimignano: For its art and frescoes
Prague: "Its important role in the political, economic, social, and cultural evolution of central Europe from the 14th century onwards" + foundation of Nove Mesto
Kathmandu Valley: "until 14th century and the arrival of the Mallas, which is an important period for the flourishing of Nepalese art and architecture. These developed into a growing spiritual orientation towards Tantrism, making it difficult to separate purely Buddhist from purely Hindu art." (AB ev)
Vilnius: "By 1323, when the first written reference to Vilnia occurs, it was the capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania." (AB ev)
Dubrovnik: "Between the 14th century and 1808, Ragusa ruled itself as a free state", bulk of its walls are 14th and 15th century, earliest surviving pharmacy 1317 (wiki)
Naples: Another case of "continuous evolution". The earliest of the major monuments are the Duomo and the monastic complex of Santa Chiara (1313-1340)
University of Coimbra: The University was founded in 1290 as a studium generale in Lisbon but transferred by King Dinis to Coimbra in 1308 (AB ev)
Bursa and Cumalikizik: birthplace of the Ottoman Empire in the early 14th century, various buildings dating back to 14th century included
Taputapuātea: the marae Taputapuātea has seen at least two stages of construction from the 14th to the 18th centuries, with the ahu being expanded greatly (AB ev)
Padua’s fourteenth-century fresco cycles: painted between 1302 and 1397 by different artists

Built in the 15th century

Chan Chan: Actually built earlier, but apogee in its planned form in 15th century
Cidade Velha: "The island of Santiago was discovered around 1460 and claimed for the Crown of Portugal. There was no human presence on the island..... As early as 1466 it was granted a royal charter entitling its inhabitants to practise the slave trade.... Ribeira Grande was the first European town to be built in the tropics, from the end of the 15th century onwards... Construction of the first defensive structures, the town hall, and the first church began at the end of the 15th century" (AB)
Angra do Heroismo: Founded in 1450, Linked to the maritime explorations that in the 15th and 16th centuries, Port of call for Vasco da Gama in 1499
Bagerhat: Constructed first half of 15th century (AB)
Changdeokgung Palace Complex: In the early 15th century, the Emperor T'aejong ordered the construction of a new palace at an auspicious site.
Churches of Moldavia: built between ca. 1487 and 1532
Cuzco: Flourished as Inca capital in 15th century (Coricancha (Temple of the Sun) constructed 1432)
Ferapontov Monastery: Wall paintings in the church of the Nativity of the Virgin, painted by Dionisy in the late 15th century (AB)
Florence: Renaissance principles by Brunelleschi (completed the cathedral's dome in 1436) e.a.
Forts and Castles Gold Coast: Earliest dates from 1482 (Elmina Castle)
Haeinsa Temple: The Temple dates from the 15th century, the woodblocks it preserves are from the 13th
Imperial Palace: In 1406 the Ming dynasty Emperor Zhu Di ordered the construction of an imperial palace: its construction began in 1407 and was completed in 1420 (Beijing; Shenyang dates from 1625-1636)
Istanbul: Capital of the Ottoman Empire from 1453: Topkapi Saray (1465). Developed further in 16th and 17th centuries: Blue Mosque (1609-1616), the Sehzade and Süleymaniye mosques, constructed under Süleyman the Magnificent (1520-66)
Machu Picchu: appears to date from the period of the two great Incas, Pachacutec Inca Yupanqui (1438-71) and Tupac Inca Yupanqui (1472-93) (AB ev)
Pico Island: agriculture practice of viniculture started in the 15th century (AB)
Qal'at al-Bahrain: Main Fortress dates from the 15th and 16th centuries (nom file)
Royal Joseon Tombs: Tradition (and specific design) started in the 15th century at Donggureung
Santa Maria delle Grazie: Church 1466 - 1490, Last Supper 1495 - 1498
Temple of Heaven: 1406-1420
Tomb of Askia: 1495
La Lonja de la Seda: founded in 1469
Corfu: " The fortifications of Corfu were designed by renowned Venetian engineers, and they were used for four centuries to defend the maritime trading interests of the Republic of Venice against the Ottoman Empire.. Venice took .... control of Corfu in ..1386... In the early 15th century activity concentrated on the medieval town, with the development of harbour facilities (docks, quays and arsenals) and continued with the renovation of the defense works" (AB)
Town Hall and Roland, Bremen: Roland dates from 1404, Town Hall 1409
Xidi and Hongcun: There are 29 Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) and 3,611 Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) residential buildings and family temples in the county. Decorated with the typical local style of brick, wood and stone, carvings, they display the ornateness and elegancy of the traditional 15th-16th century edifices, boasting historical and research value, as well as being tourist attractions. The most typical of these are the residential houses of Xidi Village and the paleo-ox-shaped Hongcun Village. They have been referred to as museum of Ming and Qing residential houses in China." - china.org.cn
Imperial Tombs: "After the construction of the Imperial Palace (the Forbidden City) in 1420, the Yongle Emperor selected his burial site and created his own mausoleum. From the Yongle Emperor onwards, 13 Ming Dynasty Emperors were buried in this area." - wiki
Fujian Tulou: "Fujian Tulou is a property of 46 buildings constructed between the 15th and 20th centuries over 120 km in south-west of Fujian province, inland from the Taiwan Strait." - Nomination File
Urbino: Some of the leading humanists of the time, ...., came together at the court of the Montefeltro Duke Federico III, who ruled Urbino from 1444 to 1482, to create and implement outstanding cultural and urban projects. (AB ev)
Wooden Churches of the Slovak Carpathians: represent one of the best examples of European wooden religious architecture from the late Middle Ages to the end of 18th century; Hervartov, Saint Francis Church (1460-1480), Tvrdosin built as late as the second half of the 15th century (AB ev)
Wooden Churches of Southern Malopolska: The oldest well preserved Roman Catholic wooden churches date back to the 15th century (AB ev)
Ferrara: city plan (1492)
Evora: "Evora has been shaped by nearly 20 centuries of history ... But it was in the 15th century, when the Portuguese kings began living there on an increasingly regular basis that Evora's golden age began" (AB)The Cathedral was begun in 1184 and 2the 16th century was a period of major urban planning" (AB)
Mantua and Sabbioneta: The second part of the 15th century, the period of Ludovico II (1444-1478), gave Mantua a premier role in the development of the Renaissance; In Mantua the programme for planning urban spaces as a way of organizing the city was initiated in the early 1430s (AB ev)
Banska Stiavnica: "The 15th C saw the beginning of a period of immense prosperity for the area: defences were built round the town, the parish church was rebuilt and fortified, and many new residences were built....... in the 16th century they were either converted into Renaissance "palaces" or comnbined to forrn rows or terraces. Trinity Square, at the heart of the town, was a planned development of this period. However, a slow decline began at the end of the 15th century"" (AB)
Champaner-Pavagadh: The monuments of Champaner were built within 23 years of the town's capture by Mahmud Begada, Sultan of Gujarat in 1484. By 1535 the city had been captured by Humayun and was abandoned
Djenné: "In the 14th C Jenne-jaro was abandoned in favour of Djenne... (which) enjoyed its golden age during the 15th and 16th centuries. At that time it was a major centre for the spread of Islam. Taken first by the Moroccans in 1591, and subsequently by the Peulhs in 1810, the Toucouleurs in 1862, and finally by the French colonial troops in 1893, Djenné did not undergo any other period of major development until Mali won its independence" (AB)
Cathedral of St. James in Sibenik: It was built in three phases, by three architects, between 1431 and 1535 & Criterion ii The Cathedral of St James is the fruitful outcome of considerable interchanges of influences between the three culturally different regions of Northern Italy, Dalmatia, and Tuscany in the 15th and 16th centuries (AB ev)
Pienza: Major buildings, including cathedral and town hall (1462)
Berat and Gjirokastra: Gjirokastra: "Gjirokastra bears very certain and exceptionally well preserved testimony to the Balkan fortress-town of the 15th and 16th centuries." (AB ev)
Medina of Tétouan: It was rebuilt at the end of the 15th century by a group of refugees from Andalusia
Salamanca: "The oldest university building in Salamanca, now the Rectorate, is the old Hospital del Estudio, built in 1413. Its facade faces the Court of Schools. The buildings housing the University proper, Las Escuelas Mayores, are grouped around a central patio and were built between 1415 and 1433." (AB ev)
Cliff of Bandiagara: Archaeological evidence suggests human occupancy of the cliffs for at leaat the last 1,000 years, although the Dogons themselves did not arrive until the 15th and 16th centuries." (AB) "Among the Dogon several oral traditions have been recorded as to their origin. One relates to their coming from Mande, located to the southwest of the Bandiagara escarpment near Bamako... It is likely that the Dogon of today combine several groups of diverse origin who migrated to escape Islamization. (wiki) Paul (as this is a "Cultural Landscape" what the Dogon did elsewhere is irrelevant. Although there are "Tellem" remains caves etc today's landscape is primarily "Dogon" and the OUV emphasises connection to that culture
Santo Domingo: Founded in 1498
Trinity Sergius Lavra: Criterion IV: "The Lavra is an outstanding and remarkably complete example of an active Orthodox monastery complex with a military function that is characteristic of the period of its growth and expansion in the 15th to 18th centuries." (AB ev)
Strasbourg: The Grande ile is "a unique ensemble of domestic architecture in the Rhine Valley of the 15th and 16th centuries". Construction of the Cathedral lasted from 1176 to 1439 when the spire was completed. (AB)
Solovetsky Islands: "The Solovetskii Monastery was founded by three monks from the Kirillo-Belozersk and Valaam Monasteries in the 1430s." (AB ev)
Graz: For its Gothic buildings: ". Of the original castle where Emperor Frederick III resided, all that remains is a Gothic hall, a late Gothic chapel, and a double spiral staircase going back to 1499. .... Frederick III built the present cathedral in late Gothic style (1438-64)"
Richtersveld: Written records on the Nama people in this area exist from the 15th century. Possibly arrived earlier, but no evidence found when.
Matera: Tradition of living in caves in this area is long, but current settlements date from the late 15th century
Maymand: The permanent settlements developed sometime before the 16th century (AB ev)
Medici Villas and Gardens: "The villas built by the Medici, from the 15th to the 17th centuries.... (E.g) The Villa di Cafaggiolo.... is an ancient Medici family property acquired in the 14th century..... In 1451, Cosimo the Elder asked the architect Michelozzo to restructure it and make it grander while also transforming it into a summer residence with a garden.... Construction of the Villa Medici in Fiesole was started in 1458 by Michelozzo. ,,, Villa di Poggio a Caiano .... Guiliano da Sangallo was commissioned to carry out the work that started in 1479" (AB)
Agadez: The earliest built heritage in Agadez dates from the 15th and 16th centuries. (AB ev)
Qhapaq Ñan: The central thrust of the Incas' policy, initiated in the sixth century and recorded in millennia of pre-Hispanic Andean history, was expressed to the fullest in terms of territorial spread and maximum linkages among cultures in the fifteenth century (nom file)
Burgundy: It was specifically in the 15th century that the process of diversification of separate cuvées commenced (AB ev)
Ahmadabad: founded by Sultan Ahmad Shah in 1411 AD
Churches of the Pskov School of Architecture: the Pskov School of Architecture reached its peak in the 15th and 16th centuries (AB ev)

Built in the 16th century

Belem: Monastery (1502), Belem Tower (1514)
Cartagena: Founded in 1533, fortification started in 1586 (AB)
Churches and Convents of Goa: Portuguese since 1510, Jesuits arrived in 1542, construction of the Se Cathedral and Church of Bom Jesus started late 16th century
El Escurial: built 1563-1584
Fatehpur Sikri: built 1571-1585
Fontainebleau: transformed, enlarged and embellished in the 16th century by Francois I
Genoa: mercantile city & urban planning date from the 16th century (crit ii en iv), Lista dei Rolli (1576)
Hampi: mostly built (and apogee) under Krishna Deva Raya (1509-1530)
Humayun's Tomb: 1570
Island of Mozambique: Portuguese port since 1507, oldest extant fortress (St Sebastian, 1558-1620), other defensive buildings and numerous religious buildings (including many from the 16th century) (AB)
Kasbah of Algiers: Construction started in 1516 and continued up to the 17thC
La Fortaleza: La Fortaleza - built 1533-1540; the sites illustrate the adaptation to the Caribbean context of European developments in military architecture from the 16th to 20th centuries
Lima: Founded in 1535
Mazagan: Portuguese settled in 1502, fortifications built in 1541
Mehmed Paša Sokolović Bridge: The Visegrad Bridge was constructed from 1571 to 1577 (AB ev)
Mostar: The town was fortified between 1520 and 1566, and the bridge was rebuilt in stone. The second half of the 16th century and the early decades of the 17th century were the most important period in the development of Mostar.
Old Havana: founded 1519
Plantin-Moretus Museum: Christoffel Plantin set himself up as a printer in 1555, founding his publishing house 'De Gulden Passer' (The Golden Compasses). In 1576 he moved his printing business to the Vrijdagmarkt square.
Popocatepetl monasteries: See its full name
Quito: Taken by the Spanish in 1533
Ruins of León Viejo: Heyday in mid 16th century, "frozen" in 1610
Salvador de Bahia: Discovered 1502, first capital of Brazil (1549 to 1763), first slave market in the New World (from 1558)
Shibam: Most structures date from after a flood in the mid-1550's (AB ev)
Valletta: Valleta's prime period was the 16th century - see Wiki for list of its major buildings including most churches and palaces
Vatican City: St. Peter Basilica reconstructed in 16th century, Last Judgement painting by Michelangelo 1508-1512, influence on art from the 16th century on (AB)
Zacatecas: Founded in 1548, and already the prominent mining town in the late 16th century
Zamosc: Zamosc is an outstanding example of a Renaissance planned town of the late 16th century (AB)
Arequipa: Several periods, but "the natural disaster of 1582 caused a major change in favour of antiseismic construction, introducing a systematic use of sillar" was the most influential moment
Potosi: It owes its prosperity to the discovery, between 1542 and 1545, of the New World's biggest silver lodes
Sucre: founded in 1538
Classical Gardens of Suzhou: it was during the Ming and Qing Dynasties, and in particular the 16th to 18th centuries, that the city's prosperity resulted in the creation of as many as two hundred gardens (AB ev)
Kronborg Castle: built in 1574-1585
Santa Ana de los Rios de Cuenca: founded in 1557
Botanical Garden, Padua: established in 1545
Selimiye Mosque: between 1569 and 1575
Fort Jesus: built by the Portuguese in 1593-1596
Luther Memorials: on 31 October 1517, Luther posted his famous '95 Theses'
Ambohimanga: representative of the social and political structure of Malagasy society from at least the 16th century (AB ev)
Safi al-Din Ensemble in Ardabil : The Sheikh Safi al-Din ensemble is a prototype and an outstanding example of a 16th century religious complex (AB ev)
Antigua Guatemala: Founded in its current location in 1543 and was "capital" of the colony of Guatemala (most of C America and S Mexico)until 1776 when it was largely destroyed by an earthquake (earlier ones had also regularly caused damage), the capital was moved and the old city took its current name of "Antigua". A number of the major buildings were constructed during those 200 years but much of the extant fabric post-dates the earthquake. Sao Francisco Church and the ruined Sto Domingo Monastery contain probably the only 16th century remains. The towers of the Cathedral date to 1680. The monastery of the Capucins and La Merced church are also pre-earthquake 18th century
Macao: A-Ma temple was actually first built in 1488, however all other buildings are from the 16th century on. "Portuguese traders first settled in Macau in the 16th century" - wiki
Morelia: Founded in 1541 and gained city status from Charles V in 1545, taking the name of "Valladolid". By 1580 it had become both the civil and religious centre of the province. "The historic center is roughly equivalent to the original layout of the city when it was founded ..., and most of this layout has survived intact to the present day. Anticipating growth, this original layout had very wide streets and plazas for the time, with streets systematically arranged to allow for elongation. The streets are systematically laid out, but not rigidly squared, with most having gentle curves designed into them. Most of the grandest structures where completed during the 18th century, including the facade and bell towers of the Cathedral, the Colegio Seminario (today the State Government Palace), La Alhóndiga (today part of the Palace of Justice) and numerous private mansions. During the same time period, infrastructure such as the city's aqueduct and various plaza fountains were constructed." (Wiki)
Mir Castle: 1520 (official website)
Camino Real: Defined first as far as Zacatecas, the original terminus, between 1540/50 in order to link its silver mines with the coast. A number of the route's inscribed towns were developed to protect this road. It was then extended as far as El Paso by 1598. It was in regular use as the main route into New Mexico for 300 years. See
Úbeda and Baeza: "The most important development takes place from the mid 15th to the 16th century.... The most important historic buildings in Ubeda include: The Palace of Francisco de los Cobos... (1531), The funerary chapel of El Salvador del Mundo ..(1532-53); The Palace of Vázquez de Molina (1546), The Hospital Honrados Viejos (1548). The Palace of the Déan Ortega (1550)" (AB)
Villa d'Este: unique example of an Italian 16th-century garden (AB ev)
Temple, Mansion and Cemetery of Confucius: While numerous tombs date as far back as the Zhou dynasty (1046-256 BC), the current layout and building design of the temple and mansion originate from the Ming Dynasty. "At its apogee in the 16th century the Mansion was made up of 170 buildings with 560 rooms, but only 152 buildings with 480 rooms survive, covering 12,470 m2. Most of the principal buildings date from the Ming Dynasty, with additional structures of the Qing Dynasty." - AB Document "The last major redesign following the fire in 1499 took place shortly after the building of the Forbidden City in the Ming Dynasty, the architecture of the Temple of Confucius resembles that of the Forbidden City in many ways." - Wiki
Alcala de Henares: The Universidad y Colegio Mayor de San Ildefonso is the heart of the university city. It was built in 1537-53 (AB ev)
Church of the Ascension, Kolomenskoye: Church of the Ascension was built in 1532 (AB ev)
Litomysl Castle: completed in 1580, but with considerable modifications from 1719 onwards in the High Baroque style (AB ev)
Iwami Ginzan Silver Mine: the Iwami Ginzan Silver bearing seams were 'discovered' in 1526, and almost immediately developed (AB ev)
Nesvizh: "In 1582 Mikołaj Krzysztof "Sierotka" Radziwiłł ... started the construction of an imposing square three-storey "château". Although the works were based on a pre-existing structure of a medieval castle, the former fortifications were entirely turned into a renaissance-baroque house. Construction was completed by 1604,.... The most important structure .....is the Corpus Christi Church (1587 to 1603), " (Wiki)
Novodevichy Convent: Founded in the 1520s; The wooden-framed iconostasis, decorated in gold-coated carvings, typical of Moscow Baroque, has icons of the 16th and 17th centuries. (AB ev)
Khami Ruins: "According to Carbon 14 dating methods the city grew between ca. 1450 and 1650" (AB). Among goods found are "16th century Rhineland stoneware, Ming porcelain pieces which date back to the reign of Wan-Li (1573-1619)" (AB)
Baroque Churches: Stone church of San Agustin dates from 1587
Bukhara: The most celebrated buildings date from the Shaybanid period (1500-1598)
Camagüey: 1528
Coro and its Port: 1527
Melaka and George Town: In 1511 the Portuguese conquered the city of Melaka (AB ev)
Ibiza: "The intact 16th century fortifications of Ibiza" (AB ev)
Oaxaca and Monte Alban: Oaxaca was founded in 1529 and "is a perfect example of a 16th-century colonial town." (Unesco)
Harar: "Some sources indicate that Harar came into being around the 10th century or even earlier. Islam was introduced to Ethiopia in the 9th century. Three mosques of Harar have been dated to the 10th century...The walls surrounding this sacred Muslim city were built between the 13th and 16th centuries...In the 16th century, Harar was established in its present urban form and from 1520 to 1568 it was the capital of the Harari Kingdom. From the second half of the 16th century until the 19th century, Harar was noted as a centre of trade and Islamic learning in the Horn of Africa" (AB)
Rohtas Fort: "Qila Rohtas (Rohtas Fort) was built in 1541-43 .... after the Mughal Emperor Humayun was expelled after his defeat at Chausa by Sher Khan"
Loire Valley: Chambord 1519-1547
Panamá: first European settlement on the Pacific coast of the Americas, in 1519
Sacri Monti of Piedmont and Lombardy: The phenomenon of sacri monti ('sacred mountains') began at the turn of the 15th and 16th centuries with the aim of creating in Europe places of prayer as alternative to the Holy Places in Jerusalem and Palestine .... The concept of the sacro monte ('sacred mountain') originated with the Counter-Reformation of the 16th century, following the Council of Trent (1545-63). (AB ev)
Kazan Kremlin: "The Kazan Kremlin is a medieval fortress; its inner space ....contains buildings dating from the 16th to the 19th centuries, with remains of the 10th-16th century fortifications and structures." (AB). The Kremlin "on view" was constructed after the taking of Kazan by Ivan the Terrible's army in 1552 - in particular, the fortifications and the Cathedral complex are 16C.
Vicenza and the Palladian Villas: Andrea Palladio (1508-80)
Mexico City and Xochimilco: Destruction of Tenochtitlan and foundation of Mexico City 1521/2
Koutammakou: "L'origine des Batammariba reste encore relativement incertaine...En fait, la comparaison avec les traditions orales des autres groupes ethniques de la région tend à prouver que les Batammariba sont venus de régions situées à l'Ouest ou au Nord-Ouest de l'Atacora, certains précisant du Burkina-Faso... Comme les autres groupes ethniques de la région ils se seraient réfugiés dans cette zone entre les 16ème et 18ème siècles pour mieux se protéger de la domination que cherchaient à imposer les royaumes des Mossés, Gourmantché ou encore Mamprussi et Dagomba" (Nom File)
Puebla: "founded ex nihilo in 1531....It has preserved its great religious structures such as the 16th-17th-century cathedral and fine buildings like the old archbishop's palace" (AB)
Aranjuez: "The most important general factor which makes Aranjuez and its landscape distinctive and a strong candidate for World Heritage status is the way in which it has been shaped and developed by the interests of the Kings and Queens of Spain and their Courts between the early 16th and mid-19th centuries."
Mijikenda Kaya Forests: "The sites all contain remains of kayas (or makaya), fortified villages inhabited by the Mijikenda people from around the 16th to the 19th century until their gradual abandonment between the early to mid 20th century" (AB ev)
San Cristobal de La Laguna: First founded in 1497 it "consists of two distinct parts .. the Upper Town (Villa de Arriba) of 1497 and the Lower Town (Villa de Abajo) of 1502 ... (The latter) based on a regular town plan based on Leonardo da Vinci's model for Imola..The Lower Town .. expanded rapidly, attracting the island�s ruling classes, and by 1515 had more than a thousand inhabitants�. Monastic communities started in early 16C..Official urban status was granted 1531. ..The town was set up ...as the organized space of a new peaceful social order inspired by the millennary religious concepts of the year 1500."
Timbuktu: "The market city of Timbuktu reached its apex under the reign of the Askia (1493-1591)., Three essential monuments ..... fortunately still stand as testimony to the grandeur of Timbuktu. ...... The mosque of Djingareyber was built by the sultan Kankan Moussa after his return in 1325 from a pilgrimage to Mecca. Between 1570 and 1583 the Qadi of Timbuktu, Imam Al Aqib, had it reconstructed and enlarged,... (The) mosque of Sankore, built during the Mandingue period, was restored ..... between 1578 and 1582.... The mosque of Sidi Yahia, south of the mosque of Sankore, was probably built around 1400...... The sanctuary was restored in 1577-1578..." (AB)
Lyon: For its evolving town planning over the centuries: "Over-population and the risk of epidemics led to the implementation of a policy of planned expansion starting in the mid 16th century" (AB ev)
Rome: Renaissance: The existing design of the Piazza del Campidoglio and the surrounding palazzi was created by Renaissance artist and architect Michelangelo Buonarroti in 1536-1546. (wiki)
Hoi An: "traditional asian trading port": commercial harbour developed from the late 16th century on (nomination document); "fusion of cultures over time" started around that date, leading up to the 19th century from which most current constructions date
Heritage of Mercury: The Spanish royal treasury acquired a monopoly in these activities in 1559. The Habsburgs then took direct control of the Idrija mines in 1575. (AB ev) -- Almadén is much older, but the heydays of both mines started due to the geopolitical circumstances in the 16th century
Rio de Janeiro: The first European settlement, Rio, was founded at the foot of Sugar Loaf in 1565. (AB ev)
Red Bay Basque Whaling Station: 'Grand Bay' (or 'la Gran Baya'), today known as Red Bay, became an important Basque whaling centre from the 1530s onwards (AB ev)
Wooden Tserkvas of the Carpathian Region: built between 16th and 19th centuries (Brief Description)
Par force hunting landscape: Kings of Denmark confiscated the grounds of Gribskov in 1536 (AB ev)
Aqueduct of Padre Tembleque: constructed between 1554 and 1571
Sviyazhsk: The monastery was given important privileges and the cathedral was built between 1556-1560 on the instigation of Ivan the Terrible (AB ev)
Venetian Works of Defence: See full name: Venetian Works of Defence Between 16th and 17th centuries
Thimlich Ohinga: the period of construction and occupation of the site is likely to be between 1590 and 1680 (AB ev)
Seowon, Neo-Confucian Academies: Earliest (Sosu-seowon) dates from 1542 CE
Kladruby nad Labem: The Imperial Stud Farm was established in 1579 (AB ev)
Water Management System of Augsburg: By 1545 a strict separation between drinking and process water was being kept throughout the system of watercourses. (AB ev)
Paseo del Prado and Buen Retiro: prototype of a Hispanic alameda (tree-lined avenue) from the 16th century (AB ev)
Tarnowskie Góry Lead-Silver-Zinc Mine: It represents a masterpiece of mid-sixteenth to late-nineteenth century underground hydraulic engineering (OUV)

Built in the 17th century

Brimstone Hill Fortress: "Cannon were first mounted on Brimstone Hill in 1689 during the Nine Years' War, ....when the French used them to capture the English Fort Charles. The English, .....used the same tactic to recapture the fort a year later. From then on, the English used the hill as a fortress, mounting 24-pound cannon, taking advantage of its 972 foot height" (Wiki)
Churches of Peace: Jawor in 1654-55, Swidnica in 1656-57.
Colonia del Sacramento: Founded by the Portuguese in 1680
Fortifications of Vauban: It bears witness to the evolution of European fortification in the 17th century (OUV)
Jesuit Block and Estancias of Córdoba: Built between 1604 and 1767
Jesuit Missions of the Guaranis: between 1609 and 1818
Jesuit Missions of Trinidad and Jesus: 1685 and 1706
Jesuit Missions of the Chiquitos: first dates from 1696
Agra Fort: significant for the Moghul rule in the 17th century (AB), current buildings were constructed during the reign of Shah Jahan 1628-1658
Amsterdam Canal Ring: Seventeenth-century canal ring area
Beemster Polder: 19 May 1612 (AB)
Campeche: Baroque city (1686-1704); The fortifications system of Campeche, an eminent example of the military architecture of the 17th and 18th centuries .. (AB)
Fasil Ghebbi: From 1636 on
Fort and Shalamar Gardens: Fort (1542-1605), further embellished in the 17th century by Shah Jahan, Shalamar Gardens (1641)
Himeji-jo: "In 1600, Tokugawa Ieyasu awarded the castle to Ikeda Terumasa ...... and Ikeda completely rebuilt the castle from 1601 to 1609, expanding it into a large castle complex. Several buildings were later added to the castle complex by Honda Tadamasa from 1617 to 1618. For over 400 years, Himeji Castle has remained intact," (Wiki)
Kalwaria Zebrzydowska: Begun in 1600 (AB)
Karlskrona: founded in 1680
Meidan Emam, Esfahan: Square was constructed between 1598 and 1629, its main buildings Portia of Qeyssariyeh (1602-19), the Royal Mosque (1612-30), the Mosque of Sheyx Loffollah (1602-18)
Monastery of Horezu: founded in 1690
Portobelo-San Lorenzo: 17th and 18th century fortifications (AB)
Red Fort: 1639-1648
Røros: established in 1646
Versailles: Louis XIV started its expansion in 1661
Willemstad: It was established as a trading post by the Dutch West India Company in the early 17th century. Oldest fort (Fort Amsterdam) dates from 1635.
St. George, Bermuda: settled in 1612
Yaroslavl: for its 17th century churches and its (18th century) Neo-classical radial urban plan
Bridgetown: settled by the British in 1628
Konso: People moved there ca. 400 years ago (AB ev)
São Luis: French colonization and street pattern
São Francisco Square: "As early as 1615, when the French had been driven out, the Chief Engineer of the State of Brazil,......(drew) up plans for new defences of the liberated town. In addition, he prepared an urban plan, .... as the guide to its expansion and development. It was based on geometric regularity ..... in contrast to the medieval layout of narrow winding streets applied by the Portuguese in Rio de Janeiro, Recife, and Olinda. It was to serve as the basis for the expansion ....By the end of the 17th century Sâo Luis bad a population of some ten thousand," (AB)
Québec: Oldest remaining buildings date from 1620s
Churches of Chiloé: Earliest churches in this regional style date from the mid-seventeenth century. The 16 nominated ones are a bit younger (18th-19th century).
Old Town of Galle: Dutch fortified city from 1640 on
Robben Island: Since the end of the 17th century, Robben Island has been used to isolate certain people.
Grand Place, Brussels: Harmony of the buildings at the square dates from 1697
Canal du Midi: Built between 1667 and 1694
Meknes: "The historic city of Meknes represents, in an exceptionally complete and well preserved way, the urban fabric and monumental buildings of a 17th century Maghreb capital city which combines elements of Islamic and European design and planning in a harmonious fashion." (OUV statement for Criterion iv)
Val di Noto: representative of a great, post-seismic rebuilding achievement in the decades following 1693 (AB ev)
Paris, Banks of the Seine: present historic city, which developed between the 16th and particularly the 17th centuries and the 20th century (AB ev)
Cilento and Vallo di Diano: 2 key episodes (2): "Certosa di San Lorenzo at Padula in the Vallo di Diano. Construction began in 1306, but in its present form it is essentially Baroque, built in the 17th and 18th centuries" (AB ev)
Falun Great Copper Mountain: major producer of copper in the 17th century, town of Falun, with its 1646 gridiron street plan (AB ev)
Maritime Greenwich: Queen's House 1640, Royal Observatory 1675
Gammelstad: By the beginning of the 17th centurv the site of the church and its neighbouring market place had developed into a church town (AB ev)
San Pedro de la Roca Castle: As the conflict between Spain and England grew in the 17th century the governor of the town began the construction of a stone fortress in 1638 (AB ev)
City of Luxembourg: Much of the remaining main components were (re)built during the 17th century: the casemates, Grand Ducal Palace (1683), Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Luxembourg (1621), Vauban designed military barracks (1684). The fortifications date from medieval times (12th-15th century).
Nikko: The temples were rehabilitated at the beginning of the 17th century (AB ev), original cult originated in the 8th century
Chief Roi Mata's Domain: Roi Mata lived around 1600, the sites are from the early 17th century
Gardens and Castle at Kromeríz: "When Count Karel Liechtenstein-Castelcorn became Bishop of Olomouc in 1664, the town's fortunes began to change" (AB ev)
Hollókö: After 1683
Paramaribo: Paramaribo began when Fort Zeelandia was built in 1667 on a promontory on the left bank of the Suriname River. In 1683 Van Sommelsdijck, the first governor and joint owner of the colony, laid out a planned town.
Residences of the Royal House of Savoy: comprehensive overview of European monumental architecture in the 17th and 18th centuries (criteria i, ii, iv en v)
Taj Mahal: 1631-1648
Querétaro: "It is also endowed with a wealth of outstanding buildings, notably from the 17th and 18th centuries" and "It is the buildings erected du ring the economie heyday of the town in the last quarter of the 17th century which gave Querétaro its present-day appearance"
Santa Cruz de Mompox: Chosen because of its Qualities "The urban landscape and architectural components of santa cruz de Mompox achieved a high level of unity and harmony during the 17th-19th centuries," and "The "house-store" buildings which began to appear in the 17th century" (AB ev). The town was founded in 1540.
Sukur: "A later Iron age phase going back at least to the 17th Century is represented by the establishment of the current Dur Chiefly Dynasty and the development of Sukur as a major iron producing centre" (Nom file)
Ksar of Aït Ben Haddou: Criterion (iv): "The Ksar of Ait-Ben-Haddou is an eminent example of a ksar in southern Morocco illustrating the main types of earthen constructions that may be observed dating from the 17th century"
Graz: For its late Renaissance/Baroque/Rococo heritage: Schloss Eggenberg (1625)
Salzburg: For its Baroque: "17th century baroque cathedral" (wiki)
Elvas: it was from the time of the restoration of Portuguese independence in 1640 that the great fortification scheme seen today began to take shape (AB ev)
Grand Pré: The first attempts at colonization by the French, in this maritime region of North America, date back to the 17th century + creation of polders was started in 1680 (AB ev)
Champagne: champagne revolution which took place in the 17th century in the vineyard area around Epernay and Hautvillers (AB ev)
Blue and John Crow Mountains: apparently before the arrival of the British in 1655, that the Maroons moved away from the Nueva Sevilla area to the north-eastern region of the Island (AB ev)
Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe: the monumental water displays of Wilhelmshöhe were created from 1689 (AB ev)
Namhansanseong: it has earlier origins, but was rebuilt 1624-1626
Hidden Christian Sites in the Nagasaki Region: sites date from the 17th-19th century
Bom Jesus do Monte: The Confraternity of Bom Jesus Do Monte was founded in 1629. It is from this date that Mount Espinho, including its various small heritages, is considered as a Calvary mount (AB ev)
Paraty and Ilha Grande: Paraty became the most important export route of the newly discovered gold at the end of the 17th century and served as a gateway for the entry of tools, as well as enslaved Africans to work in the mines (AB ev)
Cordouan Lighthouse: Construction finished in 1611
Sudanese style mosques: Radio-carbon evidence shows that both Sorobango and the small mosque of Kong date back to the 17th-18th centuries, (AB ev)

Built in the 18th century

Royal Palace at Caserta: Constructed between 1752 and 1780
Independence Hall: 1732 - 1753
Franciscan Missions in the Sierra Gorda: All built in the mid-18th century
Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz: "It was created in the late 18th century" (wiki)
Edinburgh: New Town - The New Town was an 18th century solution to the problem of an increasingly crowded Old Town. In 1766 a competition to design the New Town was held.
Medina of Essaouira: late-18th-century
Nancy: The project was carried out from 1752 to 1756
Kizhi Pogost: Transfiguration Church (1714), Intercession Church (1764)
Castles of Augustusburg and Falkenlust: The palaces were built at the beginning of the 18th century
Schönbrunn: Originally built between 1692 and 1713, later additions include the Gloriette (1775)
Hwaseong Fortress: 1796
Holy Trinity Column: built in 1716?1754
Diamantina: "The town of Diamantina .... developed in the 18th century.......the discovery in 1720 of an unsuspected source of wealth, diamonds.....(When) the Portuguese Crown discovered the existence of this source of wealth in 1731, it set up a new body to administer the region, the Demarcação Diamantina.... Two sets of 18th century plans show a layout of winding and uneven streets which have changed little since that time." (AB)
Fortress of Suomenlinna: The Swedish crown commenced the construction of the fortress in 1748 as protection against Russian expansionism
St. Petersburg: "the result of a vast urban project begun in 1703 under Peter the Great"
Summer Palace: "During the reigns of the Qing Emperors Kangxi and Qianlong (1663-1795) several imperial gardens were created around Beijing, the last of them being the Summer Palace, based on the Hill of Longevity and Kunming Lake in the north-western suburbs of the city.... Between 1750 and 1764 Emperor Qianlong created the Garden of Clear Ripples, extending the area of the lake" (AB)
Pilgrimage Church of St. John of Nepomuk: 1721
Würzburg Residence: 1720
Blenheim Palace: The palace was built between 1705 and 1722
Royal Saltworks of Arc-et-Senans: Constructed from 1775 to 1779
Mountain Resort, Chengde: Built between 1703 and 1792
Jantar Mantar: 1727 - 1734
Goias: In 1748, Goi?s was chosen as the headquarters of a new sub-district. Amongst the first constructions was the Casa de Fundi??o (1750) for the control of gold, the governor?s palace (1751), and the military barracks (1751).
Old Town Lunenburg: founded in 1753
Petäjävesi Old Church : The church was built between 1763 and 1765
Classical Weimar: Goethe's House (1709), Schiller's House (1777), Duchess Amalia Library (converted in 1766). Also - "It was during the lifetime of Duchess Anna Amalia (1739-1809) that its Classical period began."
Monticello: Monticello (1769?1809)
Pilgrimage Church of Wies: Constructed between 1745 and 1754
Lednice-Valtice Cultural Landscape: Straddled 17th-19th Centuries. "The realization of this grandiose design began in the 17th centurv with the creation of avenues connecting Valtice with other parts of the estate. lt continued throughout the 18th centurv with the evolution of a framework of avenues and paths providing vistas and rides, imposing order on nature in the manner of the Renaissance artists and architects. The early years of the 19th century saw the application by Duke Jan Josef 1 of the English concept of the designed park" (AB)
New Lanark: founded in 1786
Derwent Valley Mills: 1771
Kew Gardens: established in 1759
Drottningholm: "best example of a royal residence built in the 18th century in Sweden and is representative of all European architecture of that period" (AB evaluation)
Potsdam: Sanssouci (1745 ? 1747)
Congonhas: built 1776-1805
Island of Gorée: Maison des esclaves (1780)
Wooden Churches of Maramures: Most of them (5) were built in the 18th century
Wachau Cultural Landscape: From 1700 onwards, artistic and architectural monuments that are among the most important examples of Austrian Baroque were built in the Wachau. These include the rebuilding of Melk Abbey (begun in 1702), the conversion of the Canons' Abbey in D?rnstein (1715?33), and the large-scale rebuilding of G?ttweig Abbey from 1719 onwards. (AB)
The trulli of Alberobello: Trulli Sovrano (most impressive trulli) dates from the 18th century. Construction of others had already started in the 16th century
Old Rauma: Old city was destroyed by fire in the late 17th century. The current city was built in the 18th, including its major monument City Hall
Bordeaux: Major monuments date from the 1730s onwards
Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape: Between 1700 and 1814, the industrialisation of non-ferrous mining in Cornwall and West Devon transformed the landscape and the structure of society (AB ev)
León Cathedral: From 1747 on
Olinda: essential urban fabric of Olinda dates from the 18th century
Ouro Preto: Founded in the last years of the 17th century als Villa Rica, its wealth and landmark buildings date from the 18th century
Kandy: Royal Palace and the Temple of the Tooth date from the reign of Keerti Sri Rajasimha (1747-82)
City of Bath: For its Georgian buildings and heyday as a fashionable spa town - "The Assembly Rooms, built in 1771 by John Wood, Jr. and the Pump Room from 1793 to 1799 by Palmer in accordance with the plans Thomas Baldwin) harmonize with the grandiose proportions Assembly built of of monumental ensembles such as Queen Square (1729) and the -Royal Circus (1754), both works of John Wood Sr.; and especially, the Royal Crescent, an extensive row of dwellings in a half-circle formation built from 1767 to 1776 by John Wood" (AB)
Ironbridge Gorge: The Coalbrookdale blast furnace perpetuates in situ the creative effort of Abraham Darby I who discovered coke iron in 1709. It is a masterpiece of man's creative genius in the same way as the Iron Bridge, which is the first known metal bridge. It was built in 1779 (AB ev)
Kinderdijk: surviving mills were built around 1738-1740
Engelsberg Ironworks: The main "Manor House" building was constructed around 1750 and the Smelting House in 1778-9. Most of the other buildings date through the 19th century to 1917-18
Guanajuato: The town was founded in 1548 following the discovery of Silver. Its period of greatest wealth was 18C when its output of silver was alone of a size to "impact the World's economy" (Wiki). The La Valencia mine, opened in 1774, was producing 2.3rds of he world's silver at its peak. Much of the city centre, University etc are 18C creations
Itchan Kala: Pahlavan Mahmud Mausoleum (1701), Djuma Mosque (largely rebuilt in 1788-89)
Le Morne: retreat for escaping slaves in the 18th and early 19th century
Studley Royal Park: Studley Royal Park: Between 1718 and the end of the century John and William Aislabie created "what is arguably England's most important 18th century Water Garden." (Wiki) The 16th century house, rebuilt in Palladian, style was burnt down in 1946 leaving just the gardens
Holasovice: The buildings date from the 18th to 20th century, including the chapel of St. John of Nepomuk in the city centre (1755) (Wiki)
Vigan: The town was founded in 1572 on the site of a small pre-colonial village : "At the end of the 17th century a new form of architecture evolved, which combined the traditional construction with the techniques of building in stone and wood introduced by the Spanish...The seat of the Archdiocese of Nueva Segovia was transferred there in 1758, (and) in 1778, as a result of its expansion, it was renamed Ciudad Ferdinandina.... Vigan belongs to the 18th and 19th century network of Asian trading cities whose lifestyle and architecture blend Asian and western culture...It is the only enduring example of Spanish urban planning with authentic 18th, 19th and early 20th century architecture." (AB and Nom File)
Fertö/Neusiedlersee: Széchenyi Palace (was) ".initially built in the mid-18th century on the site of a former manor house" The Baroque palace garden was originated in the 17th century. In the late 18th century an English-style landscape garden was laid out.. Fertod Esterhazy Palace .. was the most important 18th-century palace of Hungary, built on the model of Versailles. ..To the south is an enormous French Baroque garden that has been changed several times, the present layout being essentially that of 1762." (AB)
San Miguel de Allende: San Miguel was .."first established in the 16th century to protect the Royal Route inland,(and) reached its apogee in the 18th century when many of its outstanding religious and civic buildings were built in the style of the Mexican Baroque ...The urbanization of the Bajío was a phenomenon of the 18th century not repeated in other regions of New Spain ..Between 1730 and 1760 the power and control spaces of the village were moved from the ancient Soledad plaza to the plaza that had harboured the parish temple since the 16th century". The Sanctuary of Atoninalco was built in 18C.
Turaif Quarter: "The site illustrates a significant highpoint of settlement in the central Arabian plateau in a desert environment when in the mid-18th century the town of ad-Dir'iyah became the capital of an independent state" (Crit V justif). "Founded in 15C ...its development reached an initial apogee in the 16th century.. In the 18C and early 19C,..it became the centre of the temporal power of the House of Saud... In the 18C successive imams ..fortified the oasis ..This was a period marked by urban development and the construction of the citadel of at-Turaif. In the second half of the 18th century and at the start of the 19C... The urban ensemble linked with the oasis was developed, particularly the Salwa palaces in the citadel of at-Turaif... The site provides a very full account of Najdi town-planning from the mid-18th century until the start of the 19C." (AB).
Vienna: Baroque e.g Lower Belvedere from 1712, Upper Belvedere 1717-1723. See
Trinidad and the Valley de los Ingenios: "Towards the end of the 18th century, the sugar industry was firmly established in the Valle de los Ingenios" and "present city owes its charm to its 18th and 19th century buildings" (AB ev)
Old City of Acre: Ottoman walled town: "flourished again in the 18th century as the capital of this part of the Ottoman Empire"
Margravial Opera House: 1745-150
Nord-Pas de Calais Mining Basin: coal extraction from the 18th to the 20th centuries (AB ev)
Al Zubarah: Al Zubarah appears to have been founded in the 18th century (AB ev)
Christiansfeld: founded in 1773
San Antonio Missions: Mission Valero (now called Alamo) is the oldest, dating from 1718
Antigua Naval Dockyard: In 1743 the British navy began to build a major dockyard facility (AB ev)
Sheki: the current historic town of Sheki’s oldest structures date to the year 1772 (AB ev)
Mafra Palace, Convent and Royal Hunting Park : Construction started in 1717 and was mostly complete by 1730 (AB ev)
Jaipur City, Rajasthan: founded in 1727
The Prosecco Hills: The earliest documentation concerning the cultivation of the Glera grape variety in the Veneto region dates back to 1754. (AB ev)
Great Spa Towns of Europe: the international European spa culture that developed from the early 18th century to the 1930s
The Slate Landscape of Northwest Wales: From the end of the 18th century and throughout the 19th century, capital investment and the strategic access to the bay of Liverpool in the north and the Irish Sea in the west enabled the expansion of Welsh slate production and export to England, Ireland, and France. (AB ev)
Nice: From the middle of the 18th century, the mild climate and picturesque setting of Nice attracted an increasing number of aristocratic and upper class families (AB ev)

Built in the 19th Century

Vienna: The Ring "was constructed after the dismantling of the city walls in the mid-19th century. From the 1860s to 1890s, many large public buildings were erected along the Ring Road in an eclectic historicist style, sometimes called Ringstraßenstil ("Ring Road style")," (Wiki)
Paris, Banks of the Seine: Eifel Tower (1889), Grand Palais
Royal Exhibition Building: Completed 1880 for the 1888 exhibition
Semmering Railway: 1848-54
The Four Lifts: The first Lift was built in 1882 and a major part of the canal in 1892 - though the other 3 Lifts weren't constructed until 1909-17
Major Town Houses: Hotel Tassel 1894, Hotel Solvay 1895-8, Hotel Van Eetvelde 1897 -1900, Maison and Atelier Horta 1898-1901
Royal Palaces of Abomey: Among the palaces surviving after the destruction of another 10 in the invasion of 1894 are those of Kings Ghezo (1818-58), Gl?l? (1858-89) and Behanzin (1889- 1894)
Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works: 200 works to mine and process the saltpeter, with towns to house the workers, and railways to transport the powder to coast, were established in an intensive period of around 50 years from 1880. (AB ev)
Cienfuegos: laid out in its current form in 1819 with 6 buildings remaining from then until 1850 and a further 327 to 1900
Struve Geodetic Arc: the surveys were made between 1816-55
Verla Groundwood and Board Mill: Founded 1872 but destroyed by fire in 1876. Rebuilt 1882
Kunta Kinteh Island: 6 Gun Battery and Fort Bullen were built in 1816 and 1826 "with the specific intent of thwarting the slave trade once it had become illegal in the British Empire after the passing of the Abolition Act in 1807." (AB eval)
Völklingen Ironworks: the plant was originally developed in 1873 and 5 Blast furnaces and a coking plant had been constructed by 1897
Asante Traditional Buildings: "There exists today only a small number of the traditional structures, habitats of man and gods, of which the majority are less than 100 years old" (AB eval). The Besease Shrine was built c1850
National History Park: Thre fort was constructed between 1805-20 and the Palace from 1810-13
Budapest: Large parts of the inscribed area were constructed in the 19th century - the Bridge (1849) , the Parliament (1884-1904), the Andrassy Avenue area (1872-85 ) and the underground (1893-6)
Mountain Railways of India: DHR 1879-81, Niligri 1891-1908, Kalka-Shimla 1899-1903
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus: 1887
Crespi d'Adda: from 1878
Aapravasi Ghat: The Ghat was the reception location for c 500000 indentured labourers arriving from 1834-1920. The main buildings date between 1849-65
Tequila: Most of the Haciendas and Distilleries date from the 19th century when the growth in international trade in Tequila led to a large increase in production and industrialisation took place
Dutch Water Defence Lines: built 1883-1920
Vizcaya Bridge: 1893
Blaenavon Industrial Landscape: Although the Ironworks commenced in 1788 the majority of the growth took plae in the 19th century - Big Pit was opened in 1880
Saltaire: Founded by Sir Titus Salt in 1853
Pontcysyllte Aqueduct and Canal : 1805
Statue of Liberty: Inaugurated 1886
Rideau Canal: Opened 1832 - project initiated in 1824
Australian Convict Sites: Hyde Park Barracks, Fremantle Prison, Great North Road, Cascades Female Factory, Brickendon and Woolmers Estates
Muskauer Park: Founded in 1815
Vlkolinec: The current buildings date mainly from the 19th century
Sintra: Pena National Palace (1842-1854), Castelo dos Mouros reconstructed in the 19th century
First Coffee Plantations: "Coffee production was established in the island of Saint-Domingue (Hispaniola) by French settlers in the 18th century. The uprisings from 1790 onwards, culminating in the establishment of the independent state of Haiti in 1804, resulted in the flight of French plantation owners, accompanied by many of their African slaves, to the neighbouring island of Cuba, then under Spanish rule. They were granted lands in the south-eastern part of the island in the foothills of the Sierra Maestra, at that time largely not settled and eminently suitable for coffee growing" (AB)
Wieliczka and Bochnia Royal Salt Mines: Kinga underground Chapel 1895
Coffee Cultural Landscape: Growing of coffee and construction of the towns started in the 19th century
Residence of Bukovinian & Dalmatian Metropolitans
Hué: Blossomed as capital of unified Viet Nam from 1802 on
Valparaiso: exceptional testimony to the early phase of globalization in the late 19th century (AB ev)
SGang Gwaay: "Frozen" after the permanent inhabitants left in the late 19th century
La Chaux-de-Fonds / Le Locle: Planned in the early 19th century, after extensive fires, the towns owed their existence to this single industry. (AB ev)
Hospicio Cabañas: inaugurated in 1829
Fortified City of Carcassonne: It is of exceptional importance by virtue of the restoration work carried out in the second half of the 19th century by Viollet-le-Duc (AB ev)
Tlacotalpan: Although populated by some Spaniards in the mid 16th century the settlement hardly grew until the 19th and was destroyed by fires in 1698, 1788 and 1790. In 1821 however it became the port for exports from Oaxaca and Puebla and grew significantly. It was granted "town" status in 1865
Museumsinsel (Museum Island): Altes Museum built 1824-8. Master Plan created 1841, Neues Museum 1843-7, Nationalgalerie 1866, Bodenmuseum 1897-1904, Pergamonmuseum 1909-30
Island of Saint-Louis: Founded in 1659 by French traders on an uninhabited island but remained little more than a fortified factory until the English departed in 1817 after a 16 year occupation, leaving it in ruins. A "plan d'urbanisation" was prepared in 1828 defining the regular street layout etc and in 1854 a new governor, Faidherbe, oversaw the completion of the ensemble with further large scale projects.
Viñales Valley: "Les activites economiques et socio-culturelles demarrent aux XVIIe siecle...La culture du tabac fait ensuite son apparition, devenue la principale activite economique " (Nom file) .."The area was colonised at the beginning of the 1800s by tobacco growers from the Canary Islands.. The first settlement in Vinales is documented in 1871, in the form of a ranch .. The town was established in 1878 as a typical community, with church, school, hospital and recreation park" (Wiki) "Visit to EL Palenque de los Cimarrones, a place where a runaway slave's hide-out is recreated and you learn about afro Cuban religion & the history of the slaves in the 19 century" (tourism web site)
Curonian Spit: Criterion V: "massive protection and stabilization works begun in the 19th century and still continuing to the present day"
Stone Town of Zanzibar: For cultural fusion "In the 19th century this Swahili tradition was overwhelmed by new styles brought in by the floods of immigrants." and suppression of slavery "The Anglican cathedral is in part a monument commemorating the abolition of the slave trade in the Sultan's dominions. The foundation stone was laid in 1873" (AB ev)
Tombs of Buganda Kings: The earliest present tomb structure dates to around 1882 (was built as a palace, and turned into a royal tomb in 1884)
Shirakawa-go and Gokayama: Oldest remaining ones date from the 19th. This specific way of construction started "from the late 17th century until the 1970s; its requirement of large enclosed spaces for silkworm beds and storage of mulberry leaves" (AB ev)
Decorated Farmhouses of Hälsingland: Tradition dates from earlier, but these 7 were built in the 1800s
Pearling: The pearling boom reached its apogee in the last quarter of the 19th century (AB ev) & earliest remaining inscribed buildings
Mining Sites of Wallonia: Early 19th
Grand-Bassam: late 19th and early 20th-century colonial town (AB ev)
Sites of Japan's Meiji Industrial Revolution: started the construction of the Nagasaki Foundry in 1857, Japan’s first Western-style marine engine repair facility. This marked the beginnings of heavy industry in Japan. (AB ev)
Fray Bentos: From 1865 to 1924 Giebert developed the Liebig Extract of Meat Company Limited (LEMCO) producing meat extract and corned beef (AB ev)
Levuka: first stage of settlement at Levuka (1820s-1850) & represent 19th century British colonisation (AB ev)
Golestan Palace: it received its most characteristic features in the 19th century (Brief Description)
Tomioka Silk Mill: Mill dates from 1872
Historic Jeddah: Most of the remaining historic buildings date from the 19th century
Singapore Botanic Gardens : from 1822
Forth Bridge: opened in 1890 (AB ev)
Speicherstadt and Kontorhaus District: Speicherstadt: "Originally developed between 1885 and 1927 (partly rebuilt 1949-1967)" and "The nominated portion of the adjacent Kontorhaus district is a cohesive, densely built 5.13-ha area featuring six very large office complexes begun in the 1920s" (AB)
Erbil Citadel: "The nominated property today consists of 19th and early 20th century mainly residential built fabric and a few public buildings, the latter largely transformed, erected on top of an unexcavated tell. The defensive wall system that would justify the appellation of citadel has been replaced by a wall of tall house façades, which happened possibly sometime between the 18th and 19th centuries. "(AB ev)
Kulangsu: introduction of modern western culture and technology since the opening of a commercial port at Xiamen in 1843 (AB ev)
Valongo Wharf: ancient wharf built for the landing of enslaved Africans from 1811 onwards
Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Ensemble of Mumbai: In the 1870s, the Victorian Neo-Gothic buildings were constructed along the eastern edge of the Oval Maidan, symbolizing the second city of the British Empire (AB ev)
Ombilin Coal Mining Heritage of Sawahlunto: Late 19th century (from 1860 on)
Colonies of Benevolence: Established in 1818, Frederiksoord (the Netherlands) is the earliest of these colonies (AB ev)
As-Salt: Golden Age of As-Salt’s development between 1860s to 1920s. (AB ev)
Odesa: developed during its rapid growth in the 19th century (crit ii)

Built in the 20th century

Sydney Opera House: Opened in 1973.
Brasilia: Inaugurated in 1960.
Central University City Campus of the UNAM: Completed in 1954.
Ciudad Universitaria de Caracas: 1960s.
Bauhaus Sites: In 1919 the Schools of Art and of Applied Arts of the Grand Duchy of Saxony were combined to form the State Bauhaus of Weimar. The building of the former had been constructed in two phases, in 1904 and 1911 (AB ev)
White City of Tel-Aviv: based on the urban master plan by Sir Patrick Geddes (1925-27) (AB ev)
Centennial Hall: The Centennial Exhibition opened in May 1913 (AB ev)
Luis Barragán House and Studio: The house in number 14 was built in 1948. (AB ev)
Kaiping Diaolou: mainly constructed in the 1920s and 1930s (AB ev)
Tugendhat Villa: the villa was completed by the end of 1930 (AB ev)
Le Havre: In summer 1944, with a group architect colleagues Auguste Perret (1874-1954), then 70 years old, took the lead in the project of reconstruction of the town. (AB ev)
Genbaku Dome: After atomic bomb of 6 August 1945
Rietveld Schröderhuis: Built in 1924 (AB ev)
Ir. D.F. Woudagemaal: Open since 7 October 1920
Auschwitz Birkenau: Auschwitz I was first constructed to hold Polish political prisoners, who began to arrive in May 1940. (wiki)
Palau de la Musica Catalana & Hospital de Sant Pau: These two monuments are masterpieces of the imaginative and exuberant Art Nouveau that flowered in early 20th century. (AB ev)
Skogskyrkogarden: Work began in 1917 and the formal consecration of the Woodland Cemetery and its first chapel, the Woodland Chapel (designed by Asplund), took place in 1920. (AB ev)
Grimeton Radio Station: The transmitter was constructed between 1922 and 1924
Berlin Modernism Housing Estates: Earliest is Tuschkastensiedlung Falkenberg, 1913-16
Sewell Mining Town: 1904
Bahá’i Holy Places: Precise location for tomb determined in 1891... "The remains of the Báb were buried on March 21, 1909 in a six-room mausoleum made of local stone. In a separate room, the remains of `Abdu'l-Bahá were buried in November 1921. In 1929 three rooms were added to the mausoleum, and in 1949 the first threshold stone of the superstructure was laid by Shoghi Effendi. The construction was completed over the mausoleum in 1953" (Wiki)
Schokland: Located in the agricultural landscape of the Noordoostpolder, which was created in 1942
Luang Prabang: Due to its OUV "in the years between 1915 and 1925 a new concept, that of urbanizatlon, was Introduced" (AB ev), though there are older temples and stupas
Stoclet House: 1905-1911
Works of Antoni Gaudí: Parque Guell 1900-1914 Casa Mila 1906-1910 Nativity facade of Sagrada Familia 1886-2026 (?) Casa Balto 1905-1907 Crypt of Colonila Guell (1898-1916)
Rhaetian Railway: 1908-10
Riga: A significant part of the inscribed area consists of buildings constructed in the Latvian Art Nouveau style from 1905
Zollverein: In 1927 two young architects, Martin Kremmer and Fritz Schupp, began work on designing the new central shaft site XII on the principle of "form follows function".
Fagus Factory: 1911
Bikini Atoll: Nuclear test site from 1946 to 1958
Osun-Osogbo: Although the cultural significance of the Grove dates back to Yoruba mythological periods what is "on show" is largely a 20th century manifestation. "Susanne Wenger, with the support of the Ataoja, formed a group with native traditional artists who started to erect decorated walls, giant sculptures and buildings around the shrines and remains of the palaces. ... "resulting in more than 40 powerful sculptures (or ensemble of sculptures) and sculptural architectures. The 'New Sacred Art' and the artists attached to that movement which started in the 1950's are today internationally recognized..." "This work that has been developed over the past 50 years in the grove is not only a masterpiece of modern art (Modern Sacred Art) but also an authentic illustration of the myths attached to the grove, and, more simply, has saved it from vanishing." (Nom File)
Warsaw: Its OUV lies in the reconstruction techniques and effort, that happened after 1945
Rabat: Ville Nouvelle was started in 1912, and that gave the city its unique plan (combined with historic quarters)
Van Nellefabriek: 1920's
Rjukan / Notodden: Three of the pioneering power plant buildings (Vemork, Såheim and Tinfos II) constructed between 1905 and 1940 are intact and still in use. (AB ev)
The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier: 1923-1965
Pampulha: From 1940 on
Asmara: emerged from the successive planning phases from 1893 until 1941 (first plan 1908)
Ivrea: Mostly 1930s
Frank Lloyd Wright Buildings: From 1906 on
Jodrell Bank Observatory: From 1945 on
Mathildenhöhe Darmstadt : For the international exhibitions in 1901, 1904, 1908 and 1914
Trans-Iranian Railway: Started in 1927 and completed in 1938 (AB ev)
Sítio Roberto Burle Marx: The 1949 purchase was the first of three acquisitions of land that now forms the nominated property (AB ev)
Church of Atlántida: inaugurated in 1960
Plečnik's Lubljana: The nominated property consists of a series of public spaces .. and public institutions .. that Plečnik designed throughout the city in the period between the two World Wars. (AB ev)
Rachid Karami International Fair-Tripoli: Between 1967 and 1975.

Construction of this Timeline

This timeline was developed collaboratively by our community who assigned each WHS to a historical/geological "period". The display format was chosen to provide a simple overview and an easy way of making comparisons across differing cultural and geographical regions.

Suggestions for corrections or improvements may be made via comments or the forum.

A period of a century was adopted as the appropriate level of detail for most cultural sites. At 1000 BCE it was extended to a millenium to avoid attempting a spurious accuracy. At the 10th millennium BC Geological periods were adopted for both the earliest cultural sites, commencing with the Holocene, and for all Natural sites. The granularity of the earlier geological periods was also reduced so as not to attempt an unjustifiable accuracy or create too many unpopulated shorter periods.

Many cultural sites will have developed across several centuries. The aim however has not been to capture accurate starting/finishing dates but rather to assign each site to the century which was the most significant in creating the OUV for which it was inscribed. Where this OUV creation extended across several centuries, then the one which originally initiated the OUV has been chosen. In a very few cases a site's OUV may cover several very widely separated historical periods. Here, the "single period" rule has been relaxed to permit each major contributing era to be identified. Mixed sites have been assigned both to a Cultural and a Natural time period. Natural sites have been assigned to the geological time period in which the phenomena which created their OUV occurred rather than to any/all of the periods represented by underlying or exposed, rocks etc.